(17) Notwithstanding the theoretical arguments, to alleviate these concerns about the spuriousness
of our results we test for stationarity using two related panel unit root tests: the test of Levin, Lin, and Chu (2002) (LLC) and the test of Im, Pesaran, and Shin (2003) (IPS).
A test of spuriousness
in descriptive models of participative leader behavior.
One limitation of past studies of the association between weight status and substance use is the failure to consider the role of other plausible explanations of substance use, in order to reduce concerns about spuriousness
and omitted variable bias.
of excuses is one (the alleged killing of policemen across the Line of Control and Pakistan Post stamps issued in July that depicted Burhan Wani), the other is use of language that stops short of expectations (incluAding personal attacks on Prime Minister Imran Khan).
(22) Although they are wrong to imply that the pious sisters "grugge ageyns Godys myght," their criticism illuminates the potential spuriousness
of Christ's mourning as indicative of his aversion to it.
The test is robust to nonstationarity (the spuriousness
would show up in the averaging), parameter heterogeneity or structural breaks and performs well even in small samples.
its claims concerning the spuriousness
of Waugh's faith.
Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) has, again, debunked the narrative that it has left the shores of Delta State to safer climes, saying its contributions to the physical, socioeconomic and educational development of the state attest to the spuriousness
of the claim.
The results will be filtered using various diagnostic tests such as time series hetroskedasticity developed by Breusch and Pagan (1979) for the efficiency of the model, first order time series autocorrelation for the validity of the model6, cross-sectional dependence test developed by Pesaran (2004) for the validity of the model and Pesaran (2007) CIPS unit root test of residuals to check the spuriousness
of the estimates.
(42) Such films echoed what Timothy Johnston identifies as the three central themes of Soviet anti-Western propaganda: workers struggling under economic and racial exploitation; the spuriousness
of "capitalist democracy"; and the "soulless, economically driven nature of capitalist society" that caused "gangsterism" and cynicism to be rife in the West.
As a matter of fact, "in order for a plaintiff to recover she [was required to] prove that her property [wa]s what she claims it to be", since otherwise she could not establish that "defendant's statement regarding its spuriousness