caroliniana, the staminodes
attract insects by appearing filled with abundant pollen (Kaul & Kaul, 2012).
5 mm wide; staminodes
(5)6, anthers <1 mm long, sterile, filaments 1 mm long, free, inserted on edge of annular, papillose disk; ovary superior, 3-celled, style short, stigma 3-lobed, tiny; fruits subglobose, 3-angles, glabrous; exocarp 3-valved; pyrene one per fruit, covered all by a yellow-reddish pseudoaril; seeds one per fruit, rounded, 5-6 mm diameter, hilum with an irregular depression.
Inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemose, 2-33 flowered; bracts persistent or deciduous; bracteoles absent; flowers zygomorphic or asymmetric; Sepals 5, two smaller and three larger; petals 5, yellow or orange base; stamens 7, heteromorphic, 4 smaller median, subsessile, fillet erect, 2-3 abaxial larger, 2 laterals, fillets curved, twice the length of the anthers, 1 central, fillet erect, less than anther, 3-4 adaxial staminodes
, anthers dehiscent through apical sutures.
possess tricarpellary apocarpous pistil consisting of three independent carpels, while rudimentary androecium is represented by two whorls of three staminodes
each alternately arranged in antepetalous and antesepalous position (DeMason et al.
In Rutaceae, a group of genera (Cusparieae, Galipeae) has a monosymmetric androecium by reduction of stamens to staminodes
on one side (Eichler, 1878; Engler, 1931; Kallunki & Pirani, 1998; Mabberley, 2000; Pirani & Kallunki, 2007; Groppo et al.
2 mm in diameter, glabrous, stigma branches three, white, linear, 1-2 mm long, recurved; staminodes
white, laminar, triangular, ca.
8 cm in diameter, often with abortive carpels visible and more or less developed, exocarp nearly smooth when fresh, red at maturity, dotted with lenticels, perianth with triangular petals, staminodes
triangular, obtuse at apex, to 2 mm long, sometimes with abortive anther.
presence of staminodes
, short and long stamens) that are found in some floral formulae cannot be recorded.
Fully hardy and into flower around mid April, the nodding, long, 3 in petals are snow white with yellow-tipped white staminodes
(the brush like stamens in the centre).
The petals are actually white, with prominent yellow staminodes
Cacao flowers need pollen vectors because the stigmas are surrounded by a fence of staminodes
and the anthers are hidden inside cave-shaped petal hoods; thus, anthers and stigmas are widely separated within the flower (e.
Female flowers often possess characters such as indehiscent anthers (Bawa 1977), staminodes
(Agren et al.