These include electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), electrically evoked stapedial
reflex threshold (ESRT), electrically compound action potentials (ECAP), middle latency responses (MLR), and cortical responses (CR).
Type IV: The stapedial
footplate is movable, but the crurae are missing.
involvement was significantly higher in the recurrent cases than in the non-recurrent cases (p=0.021) (Table 1).
Kulesza said stapedial
reflex testing provides much more information about the types of dysfunction that may be present.
Incus is more vulnerable to traumatic injury, being the heaviest and weakly anchored ossicule, while malleus is stabilised by the tensor tympani tendon and stapes by the stapedial
tendon (2, 6, 7).
anlage of human consists of a mesenchymal condensation (Rodriguez-Vazquez, 2005).
The carotid artery anomalies associated with PHACE syndrome (including aplasia/hypoplasia, stenosis and redundancy) as well as persistent stapedial
arteries encountered in the temporal bone are included within this category.
A large, pulsating vessel was found passing through the crura of the stapes, consistent with a persistent stapedial
artery (PSA) (figure 2).
Absence of contralateral and ipsilateral stapedial
Impedance audiometry showed a tympanogram type A bilaterally, with a stapedial
reflex (SR) threshold of 95 dB (only in the case of 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz) in the right ear and 85 dB in the left ear (in the case of 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 4 kHz).
Audiometric assessments consist of auditory brainstem response, pure tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emission, tympanometry, and acoustic stapedial
Audiometric (pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, stapedial
reflex, otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials) and neurootologic tests (clinical testing, electronystagmography, spontaneous nystagmus, gaze directional test, saccades, smooth pursuit, caloric test and head impulse and head shaking test, subjective visual vertical, and posturography) were taken along with magnetic resonance imaging in all the patients.