Despite the threshold elevation and reduced neural output at low stimulus levels (Figures 3, 4, 5, and 7), SS enhanced the amplitude of acoustic startle reflex
at high stimulus levels (Figure 2(c)), consistent with previous results  and reduced animals' reaction times to loud sounds (Figure 2(d)).
Because previous research has shown startle reflex
modulation to be a function of the affective valence of the pictures (e.g., Bradley et al., 1990; Vrana et al., 1988), independently of some formal picture features such as color (Bradley, Codispoti, Cuthbert, et al., 2001), we expected that the startle reflex
modulation would depend on the content of the pictures rather than on the size.
to SSS: Recordings were performed over the O.oc, SCM, and BB muscles randomly as five consecutive bursts with a minimum interval of 20 s to prevent habituation.
The Sleepy Hugs is designed to help babies transition out of a swaddle wrap and gives security to help babies cope with their 'moro' reflex or startle reflex
,' Villarreal, the founder of Baby Loves Sleep and creator of the Sleepy Hugs, told the BusinessMirror in an e-mail interview.
If the startle reflex
is strong, swaddle during the day too.
Wu, "Top-down modulation of prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex
in humans and rats," Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol.
Second, we studied responses of orbicularis oculi (O.oc), masseter, sternocleidomastoid (SCM), biceps brachii, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), and tibialis anterior muscles after supraorbital electrical stimuli, auditory stimuli (auditory startle reflex
, ASR), and electrical stimuli of the median nerve at the wrist (startle reflex
to somatosensory inputs, SSS).
If a kinematic stimulus is of sufficient intensity, it may also activate startle reflex
circuits, as recently demonstrated in subjects exposed to rear-end impacts, specifically whiplash injuries [18-20].
However, white noise bursts with short rising time (< 5 ms) and duration of around 50 ms were used to elicit the acoustic startle reflex
. This reaction consisted of the coordinated movement of several muscle groups, the eyeblink response being the most reliable, fastest, and most resistant to the habituation component of the startle reflex
(Landis & Hunt, 1939).
A study at Tubingen University in Germany showed vanilla aromas helped reduce the startle reflex
One idea is that like your startle reflex
, laughter-associated tickling requires that you not know it's coming.
Modulation of Startle Reflex
in Colombian Population: Evidence of the Interaction between Emotion and Motivation