Methods: Male Kun Ming (KM) mice weighing 20-22 g were divided into control, 2 mg/kg rapamycin, 12 mg/kg stavudine
, and CMC-Na groups.
Less common causes of AKI are direct infectious insults from HIV virus, immune restoration inflammatory syndrome(IRIS), rhabdomyolysis and obstruction, severe pancreatitis caused by various OIs (cytomegalovirus, cryptosporidiosis, mycobacterial) or drugs nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine and stavudine
and antitubercular drugs such as isoniazid.
A study published in the journal BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care identifies the specific drugs as stavudine
or first-generation ARVs including nelfinavir or indinavir.
Lucidi was also worldwide vice president Virology & Oncology at Johnson & Johnson, where he led portfolio strategy from drug discovery to market and served in senior leadership at Bristol-Myers Squibb, where he was responsible for the strategy and launch of several new antiviral and oncology products, includingVidex (didanosine), Zerit (stavudine
), Paraplatin (carboplatin) andTaxol (paclitaxel).
He was worldwide vice-president virology & oncology at Johnson & Johnson where he led portfolio strategy from drug discovery to market, and served in senior leadership at Bristol-Myers Squibb where he was responsible for the strategy and launch of several new antiviral and oncology products, including but not limited to Videx (didanosine), Zerit (stavudine
), Paraplatin (carboplatin) and Taxol (paclitaxel).
 In a previous study, pancreatitis was associated with gallstones, intravenous drug abuse, pentamidine intake, and Pneumocystis jiroveci and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections.'81 Acute pancreatitis is also a complication of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (didanosine, stavudine
Since April 2002, fixed dose combination pill with 3 antiretroviral agents - stavudine
, lamivudine, and nevirapine has been used in developing countries.
However, PIs  and some NRTIs, stavudine
in particular, may cause long-term lipid and glucose metabolic complications [4-6].
Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) especially Stavudine
have also been associated with body fat maldistribution .
SHL and LA are related to the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), occurring most frequently with zalcitabine, stavudine
(d4T), didanosine, zidovudine (AZT), and lamivudine and least frequently with abacavir/tenofovir.
When the state's antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out began in 2004, the [CD4.sup.+] initiation threshold for adults was 200 cells/(J and the first-line regimen included stavudine
, a drug associated with severe side-effects.
Distribution of patients by regimen shows that 14 of males and 45 of the females were on stavudine
30 mg/ lamivudine/nevirapine (D4T30/3TC/NVP/1a30) at the initiation of ART, accounting for 71.1% of the total patients in the study [Table 1].