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The unipolar (anodal) electrode (28 gauge) varnished except at the tip was lowered stereotaxically in predetermined sites using coordinates from Paxinos and Watson.
On day 4, an external ventricular drain (EVD) was inserted stereotaxically based on a predicted need for further hemodialysis, upon which ICP decreased from 10 to 3 mmHg.
Using NSCs extracted from the hippocampus of fetal rats at 14 days gestation, scientists were able to isolate and culture the NCSs and, after inducing ischemic injury using a cerebral ischemia and reperfusion rat model, stereotaxically inject them into the left striatum.
To further verify that acupuncture improves neurological recovery through activating BDNF/TrkB pathway, specific inhibitor of TrkB K252a to inhibit the phosphorylation of tyrosine was treated by injection stereotaxically into lateral ventricle [35].
For central injections, a guide cannula was stereotaxically implanted in the third cerebral ventricle according to the stereotaxic coordinates (AP=-2.3, ML=0.0, DV=6.5) published in the atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1989).
The lateral ventricle of both sides of the brain was approached stereotaxically [11] (AP -0.6 mmfrombregma, L [+ or -] 1.5 mm, and V +2.8 mm below cortical surface) through a steel cannula (0.45 mm diameter) connected to a Hamilton syringe in anesthetized rats (Nathiopentone, 50 mg/kg body wt.
Louis, MO, USA) and then placed in stereotaxic apparatus for operation; a permanent guide cannula was aseptically and stereotaxically implanted into the right lateral ventricle of rats using the coordinates (AP, -1.0 mm; ML, +2 mm; DV, +3.5 mm).
Stainless steel screw electrodes were stereotaxically implanted in 3 mm lateral within the left hemisphere with anteroposterior (AP) coordinates +3 mm and -4 mm for frontal and parietal cortices according to the rat brain atlas (Paxinos and Watson 1982).
Usually the animals were anesthetized with ip pentobarbital (50 mg/kg bw) and a 20-gauge stainless guide cannula was positioned stereotaxically above a lateral cerebral ventricle at the following coordinates: 1.7 mm lateral to the midline, 0.4 mm posterior to the bregma, 3.0 mm from the cranial theca.