Overall, 20% of the children had a family history of stereotypies
. A substantial percentage of the children had a family history of ADHD (12%), tic disorders (27%), mood-anxiety disorders (27%), and/or other neurologic disorders (22%).
The children retained some mild residual features of autism, such as social awkwardness (but more impulsive and immature than aloof), perseverative interests, and occasional mild motor stereotypies
These include hyperactivity, impulsivity, attentional difficulties, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptomatology, repetitive motor behaviors (for example, tics and stereotypies
), depression, mood swings, agitation, aggression, self-injurious behavior and insomnia.
Because tics may resemble other movement disorders, you rule out stereotypies
, dystonia, chorea, ballism, and myoclonus (Table 1).
As discussed above, higher-order stereotypies
might develop during lag schedules where the variability requirement remains constant, that is, a fixed lag.
Adverse events such as decreased appetite and increased repetitive behavior and stereotypies
occurred mainly with the highest dose, even though it was "not really that high" (0.5-0.6 mg/kg per dose), Dr.
Impairments of gross and fine motor function are reported as being common in autistic individuals, and are recognized as hypotonia, limb apraxia, or motor stereotypies
. Motor deficits are more severe in individuals with lower IQ scores.
Of these 55 patients, 90% experienced transient paranoid delusions, mostly directly related to drug use (such as delusions of being followed or surrounded by law-enforcement personnel or by people wanting to steal their drugs); 83% experienced auditory hallucinations, which is often consistent with paranoid delusions; 38% experienced visual hallucinations (such as people following them or looking in windows); 21% experienced tactile hallucinations (such as bugs or foreign objects on the skin); and 27% experienced transient behavioral stereotypies
. Only 3 of 55 subjects reported delusions or hallucinations that were not specifically about drug use.
Methylphenidate has proved to be effective in improving hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention in some patients without worsening behavior or increasing symptoms, such as stereotypies
or irritability, but such is not the case for all patients, Dr.
BALTIMORE -- Children with complex motor stereotypies
may not out-grow their movement disorder, Dr.
In contrast to Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia commonly causes decreased speech output and verbal stereotypies
. Comprehension, sense of direction, copying skills, and memory also are relatively spared.
These paradigms measured different sensory, motor, and autonomic abnormalities of relevance to Rett syndrome, including motor coordination and balance; gait abnormalities; hindlimb clasping, a model of the characteristic hand stereotypies
in individuals with Rett syndrome; acoustic startle response; and, in older animals, visual acuity and breathing abnormalities.