Mustard seeds are high in essential oil and are great source of plant sterols such as brassicasterol, campesterol, sitosterol, avenasterol, and stigmasterol
. The global mustard seeds market is expected to witness significant growth in the coming years mainly attributed to increasing application of mustard seeds in food and beverages industry, pharmaceutical industry, personal care and cosmetic industry and others.
Prakash, Isolation of stigmasterol
and [beta]-sitosterol from the dichloromethane extract of Rubus suavissimus, Int.
Ocimum sanctum (purple basil) contains volatile oils (eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, linalool, limatrol, caryophyllene, and sitosterol) (Mondal et al., 2009; Pattanayak et al., 2010), phenolic compounds (apigenin, rosmarinic acid, cirsilineol, cirsimaritin, isotimusin, and isotimonin) (Yanpallewar et al., 2004; Pattanayak et al., 2010), flavonoids (orientin, vicenin, luteolin, and molludistin) (Gupta et al., 2002), tannins, and a series of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes (bornyl acetate, b-elemene, neral, A-pinene, b-pinene, camfeno, campesterol, and stigmasterol
) (Jaggi et al., 2003).
Vitamin (K1, K2, D2, D3, [alpha]-tocopherol, retinol and retinolast) and sitosterol (ergosterol, stigmasterol
and [beta]-sitosterol) contents of Pleurotus spp., L.
In addition to these, other compounds have been isolated from the flowers, such as stigmasterol
and its glucosides, [beta]-sitosterol, oleanolic acid ester derivatives (CARVALHO et al., 2001), phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and terpenoids (SHANKAR & TOMAS, 2014).
The molecular formula [C.sub.29][H.sub.48]O (stigmasterol
) and [C.sub.29][H.sub.50]O ([beta]-sitosterol) were established showing molecular ion peak [M]+ at m/z 412.3920, [[M].sup.+] at 414, respectively, from the previous data as explained earlier.
Isolation and evaluation of anticancer efficacy of stigmasterol
in a mouse model of DMBA-induced skin carcinoma.
Beyond cholesterol and [beta][beta]-sitosterol, cholestanol, brassicasterol, campesterol, stigmasterol
, and stigmastanol were also identified based on exact m/z of such fragment ions and elution order.
adianthifolia resulted in the identification of n-hexadecanoic acid 66 (34.9%), stigmasterol
75 (28.6%), oleic acid 68 (6.3%), 24S,5[alpha] stigmast-7-en-3[beta]-ol 76 (4.4%), and chondrillasterol 74 (18.2%), while 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z), methyl ester 64 (17.6%), and trans-13-octadecanoic acid, methyl ester 69 (37.2%) were identified from the chloroform extract .
The most common phytosterols are campesterol, stigmasterol
, and [beta]-sitosterol, which come from decomposed vegetation [10, 23], as well as dinosterol, which is specifically produced by dinoflagellates .
For identification and measurement of phytosterols, each reference standard, campesterol, stigmasterol
, and [beta]-sitosterol, was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co., and retention time and peak area were used for identification.