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Botanists have known since the 19th century that leaves have pores -- called stomata -- and contain an intricate internal network of air channels.
The major part of water uptake in plants is lost through stomata transpiration (Pei et al., 1998; Saradadevi et al., 2017).
Research in our laboratory investigates the mechanisms by which CO[sub.2] elevation and drought cause closing of leaf stomata. Plant stomata are pores on leaf surfaces that enable the intake of CO[sub.2] and the release of water vapor.
These consistently showed that stomata occurred in rows and were paracytic--the stomata were bordered by two subsidiary cells with their longitudinal axes parallel to those of the stomal pore and guard cells (Prabhakar 2004), although they can be tetracytic as well (Ruddall and Chase 1996) i.e.
The gaseous pollutants mentioned above enter leaves through stomata following the same diffusion pathway as carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]).
Stomata that are highly characteristic of the epidermis occur in widely divergent parts of the plants including common foliage leaves.
Length and width measurements of stomata in the upper and lower surfaces of leaves were made and the mean and standard devition values of stomata were calculated.
A variety of characters like epidermal cells, subsidiary cells, guard cells, trichomes, macro-hairs, micro-hairs and stomata were used as a tool for the taxonomic grouping of different species.
The leaf epidermis in Bromeliaceae is composed of a single layer of cells, rarely with papillose, thin cuticle; peltate trichomes, consisting of peduncle and distal large shield; and stomata, usually covered by trichomes [13].