In addition, SS may induce reduction of the H-reflex amplitude, decreasing spinal reflex excitability and reducing stretch reflex
activation in MTU (Avela et al., 199).
Since LLR operates through the cerebral cortex,  they add flexibility to the human stretch reflex
, thereby allowing it to adapt across a range of functional tasks.
In mammalian spinal reflexes, large-diameter afferent fibers from muscle spindles (Ia) makes monosynaptic facilitation to the homonymous and synergist muscles, which is the main constituent of stretch reflex
, and disynaptic inhibition to the antagonistic muscles (Fig.
Two balanced descending systems are controlling stretch reflex
activity: the inhibitory dorsal reticulospinal tract and facilitatory medial reticulospinal tract and vestibulospinal tract.
These two spinal interneuronal populations have been shown to be responsible for suppressing stretch reflex
activity in antagonist muscles by reducing antagonist motoneuronal excitability and limiting the input from antagonist stretch-sensitive receptors to the motoneurons at the onset of movement [39, 40].
Spasticity is a motor disorder characterised by a velocity dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes
(muscle tone) with exaggerated tendon jerks resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex
as one component of the upper motor neuron syndrome.
(3) described a stretch reflex
feedback mechanism underlying the EMG activity during a muscle stretch in order to prevent excess stretch and injury to the muscle.
Spasticity was first described by Lance (1) in 1980, and according to him it was described as; a motor disorder characterised by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes
(muscle tone) with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex
, as one component of the upper motor neuron syndrome.
Massage has been used to improve blood and lymphatic circulation, enhance inelastic and elastic properties of muscles and connective tissue, alleviate muscle pain and promote relaxation.9It has been reported that mechanical properties and stretch reflex
of spastic muscle differ from normal muscles.6,13 Stretch reflex
is responsible for regulation of muscle stiffness and exaggerated response as this is responsible for hypertonia.13 Consequently, treatment is directed towards reducing stretch reflex
which has been demonstrated by O'Dwyer et al14 in young people with CP through the use of visual feedback.
Spasticity is one of several clinical signs of UMN injury defined by Lance as "a motor disorder characterized by a velocity dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes
('muscle tone') with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex
, as one component of upper motor neuron syndrome" .
Hasan, "Regulatory actions of human stretch reflex
," Journal of Neurophysiology, vol.
RFE were designed to elicit and maintain movements isolated from synergy, including the movement of each isolated finger using a stretch reflex
, skin-muscle reflex, and alpha-gamma linkage.