In extra-pontine myelinolysis cases, these features are observed frequently in the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, hippocampus, lateral geniculate body, thalamus, cerebellum, and cerebral subcortex
, and it is observed infrequently in the midbrain, internal capsule, and medulla oblongata.
The damage to the swallowing center of the cortex or subcortex
in stroke patients resulted in decreased coordination of swallowing muscles and prolonged muscle activity.
Unlike other aspects of language, swearing triggers a reaction in the subcortex
, a more primitive part of the brain that's also responsible for emotions and bodily functions.
In our case, although slightly hypointense change on MRI-T2 and FLAIR images was observed in the subcortex
area of the left cerebrum, no changes indicating edema or stroke were seen at all.
Characteristic findings in the brain and spinal cord include thin cerebral cortices with enlarged ventricles and increased extra-axial fluid collections, intracranial calcifications particularly between the cortex and subcortex
, abnormal gyral patterns, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, hypoplasia of the cerebellum or cerebellar vermis, and hypoplasia of the ventral cord (8-10).
Swallowing occurs when descending excitatory and inhibitory signals from the cortex and subcortex
and ascending signals from the oropharyngeal area trigger the central pattern generator in the bulbar reticular formation (5).
The three auricular acupressure points chosen were shen men, point zero, and the subcortex
The procedure implies that they collected "approximately 500 anatomically discrete samples from cortex, subcortex
, cerebellum, and brainstem of each brain and profiled for genome-wide gene expression using a custom Agilent 8 x 60K cDNA array chip" .
After the completion of the above procedure, the cerebral cortex and subcortex
for each participant were anatomically parcellated into 90 regions of interest (ROI), 45 for each hemisphere, excluding the region of the cerebellum.
Shenmen (7/7) and subcortex
(6/7) were the ear points of high-frequent use, which were considered primarily for alleviating pain, followed by lumbosacral region (5/7), liver (4/7), kidney (4/7), sympathetic (3/7), low back (2/7), waist (2/7), popliteal fossa (1/7), groove of spinal posterior (1/7), sciatic nerve (1/7), urinary bladder (1/7), buttock (1/7), spleen (1/7), and Ashi point (1/7), respectively.
The regions include the motor cortex, premotor cortex, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), cingulate motor area, supplementary motor area (SMA), and a few regions in the parietal lobe, subcortex
, and brainstem.