Indonesia sits on the Pacific Ring of Fire, where active volcanoes are concentrated and tectonic plates meet and subduct
, making it a disaster-prone area with frequent earthquakes.
Using compressed air in pre-installed micro ducts, the cable can accommodate more fibres in a given subduct
and can be blown up to 2km for long distance links.
It is one of the 127 active volcanoes -- a third of the world's total -- that dot the Indonesian archipelago, and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, where several tectonic plates meet and subduct
, frequently triggering earthquakes and volcanic activity.
8).At the same time, the Paleo-Tethys began to subduct
beneath southern Eurasia and this event resulted in the formation of an active continental margin with associated magmatism.
Another frightening unknown involves "asperities" - parts of the plates that don't subduct
Next the researchers simulated how plates might subduct
at various mantle temperatures.
These plates bump and grind past one another, diverge from one another, or collide or sink (subduct
) along the plate boundary zones of the world.
He also estimates that it was much harder to subduct
new crust on Mars.
Thermal arguments suggest that at some point in the distant past, plate tectonics may not have been able to keep pace with the required rate of heat loss (e.g., Davies, 1992, 1999) for the simple reason that oceanic lithosphere, on reaching a nearby trench, was on average too young (hence too buoyant to subduct
), and too thin (and hence less capable of cooling the mantle).
Meade, however, says that if deep-focus earthquakes are generated by the role of hydrous minerals, then plates "may easily subduct
into the lower mantle." Quakes stop at 690 km, e suggests, because by the time the slabs reach that depth, the heat of the mantle has driven all water out of the minerals.