Working within the methodology of the History of Ideas discipline, he seeks to implement an interdisciplinary perspective by emphasizing certain strains of metaphysical dualism and subjective idealism
, then applying these tenets to a substantive theory of the self and the innate quality of human loneliness.
In the process Furtak clarifies the distinctive "middle path" Thoreau crafted "between the extremes of dogmatic realism and subjective idealism
." While the reality Thoreau explored and sought to articulate ought not be confused with what is called "objective reality," he nonetheless cultivated an attitude of "piety toward the actual" (in Dewey's phrase), while regarding the imagination as "a faculty that gives us access to reality--not a means of taking flight from it." For Thoreau, "since observation is a creative process in which the observer plays a decisive role in the taking-shape of what is observed," reality itself, no less than the shape of reality, "depends on the attentive perceiver in order to be brought to articulation."
This has given rise to conflicting and mutually exclusive philosophical claims of the objective reality, ranging from positivist and subjective idealism
to the realist views of a deterministic, unchanging and a permanent objective reality, to a mechanistic measurement problem as expressed by the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, But however much wildly differing interpretations of the quantum phenomena are, the rationalist notion of a certain, deterministic and inherently unchanging reality (knowable or not) as the basis of epistemology is widely accepted.
(10) Both Popper and Schelling developed philosophies that sought to overcome subjective idealism
. It is also argued that as a process metaphysician, Schelling not merely defended an organic view of nature but developed a theory of emergence and a new conception of life relevant to current theoretical and philosophical biology.
Berkeley's thesis of subjective idealism
falls under epistemology, "the study of human knowledge--how we get it, what it is, whether we have it, or why we don't" (185).
The remaining four essays focus on the subjective idealism
of Berkeley, the transcendental idealism of Kant, and German idealism after Kant.
He discusses the historical antecedents of the work, the critique subjective idealism
, the attack of substratum-metaphysics, the critique of the scientific world view, and moving from substance to subject.
The development of empiricism as a school of thought implied still deeper degrees of subjective idealism
Both Kant's theoretical and his practical philosophy are first examined with a view to those deficiencies and contradictions, real or perceived, that have traditionally been taken to fuel the move beyond Kant's so-called subjective idealism
. Paul Guyer goes to the core of the disagreement between Kant and Hegel by re-examining Hegel's critique of the Kantian dualism of intuition and concept.
As for subjective idealism
, from Berkeley to Kant, and from Mach to Goodman, in ignoring material things and processes, such as natural resources and work, it does not help to understand what happens around us.
While maintaining her realist view for pragmatic reasons, she may also acknowledge her colleague's subjective idealism
as a legitimate alternative.
Fleetwood charts a kind of Hayekian intellectual odyssey by which this conclusion was reached: first, by more or less orthodox positivism, then by a kind of subjective idealism
(or hermeneutic foundationalism), and finally by the use of a quasi-transformational realism (the reader will have to get used to the author's use of complex, but by no means dispensable, jargon).