The study was carried out between February and May 2011 at Carlos Botelho State Park (between 24[degrees]6'55" and 24[degrees]14'41" S, and 47[degrees]47'18" and 48[degrees]07'17" W) with 37,644.36 ha of lowland tropical rain forest (0-50 m elevation), submontane
tropical rain forest (51-500 m) and montane tropical rain forest (501-1500 m), and some farmland, pasture, swamps, and pine, banana, and eucalyptus plantations (Ferraz and Varjabedian, 1999; Kronka et al., 2005).
The forests of the study area have been classified as 'very humid submontane
forest' (Ewel and Madriz, 1968; Holdridge et al., 1971).
As with other high mountains in East Africa, it harbors various endemic species of mostly flightless Saltatoria in its submontane
and montane zones.
In remnants of seasonal semi-deciduous submontane
forest with cerrado influence, in the state of Parana (Anderson and Ortencio-Filho, 2006), six species from five genera were recorded with a similar sampling effort.
All species are dwellers of forest edges and clearings of the submontane
to montane zone (Table 2).
Priess JA, Folster H (2001) Microbial properties and soil respiration in submontane
forests of Venezuelan Guayana: characteristics and response to fertilizer treatments.
Tropical lowland and submontane
forests originally covered the area, but these suffered intense exploitation and large portions had been converted to pastures.
These two species have a high altitudinal range on mountains from submontane
to afro-alpine habitats (Hemp & Hemp 2003).
In the uplands between 500 and 1 200-1 400masl, rainfall increases and temperature decreases (0.6[degrees]C per 100m altitude) and submontane
forests dominate in a submesothermic perhumid climate (>2 000mm and 18-24[degrees]C).
Sampling was carried out in submontane
rainforest (Veloso et al., 1991) at 400 m asl on average.
Usambilla also occurs in western parts of East Africa in submontane
This species inhabits montane and submontane
forests of the Pacific slope of Southern Costa Rica and the extreme West (Chiriqui Province) of Panama.