, suprailiac, abdominal, thigh and calf skinfolds were measured with a Holtain Skinfold Caliper.
According to Prescher and Klumpen the pressure from the tendon of the subscapular
muscle becomes main cause of its formation (20).
The following skin folds were evaluated: supra iliac, triceps, subscapular
, abdominal, thigh-medial, mid-axillary, pectoral.
Initial surgical interventions consisted of incision and drainage of the retropharyngeal, right deltoid, and left subscapular
Higher ALT at mid-childhood was also associated with greater increases from early to mid-childhood in body mass index z-score, sum of subscapular
and triceps skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and hip circumference.
The percentage of body fat (%BF) was calculated via the Carter equation (Carter et al., 1982), which was specifically designed for athletes, as follows: male %BF= ([sigma]6 skinfolds x 0.1051) + 2.58; and female %BF= ([sigma]6 skinfolds x 0.1548) + 3.58, incorporating six cutaneous folds (triceps, subscapular
, supraspinal, abdominal, anterior thigh and medial calf).
Skinfold thickness was measured to the nearest 0.2 mm with a caliper (Harpenden CE0120, England) including biceps, triceps, subscapular
, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal, medium thigh, and medial calf.
Additionally, seven skin folds (triciptal, subscapular
, pectoral, axillary, abdominal, suprailiac and thigh) were measured in triplicate by a trained examiner using a Cescorf[R] scientific skinfold caliper, according to the protocol of Jackson and collaborators (1980) for individuals over 18 years, to estimate body density.
Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight, triceps, subscapular
, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness (SF), knee and elbow width and arm and calf circumferences were taken from each student in line with the techniques set forth by the International Biological Program (IBP) and International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) to determine somatotype.
For skinfold anthropometry, triple measurements were taken in four standard sites: biceps and triceps (limb), subscapular
and suprailiac skinfolds (trunk) using a caliper (Lafayette Instrument Co.
A 75-year-old Caucasian man presented with a palpable right subscapular
Newborn outcomes of interest included anthropometric characteristics (length, birth weight, head circumference, abdominal circumference, chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and subscapular
bicep and tricep skinfold thickness).