Our paradigm for religion is Christianity, which appeared as a subsociety
, the culture of which differed both from Jewish culture and from that of the Greeks and Romans.
Many years ago, Charles Hartshorne, Whitehead's most celebrated disciple, proposed that the higher-order unity thus needed for the existence and activity of physical organisms and even of complex inanimate compounds could be provided by stipulating that the dominant subsociety
of actual occasions within a Whiteheadian "structured society" could give order and direction to all the other subsocieties even as it received information from all of them in virtue of its function as the "soul" or organizing principle of the whole.
Condominium unit owners comprise a little democratic subsociety
of necessity more restrictive as it pertains to use of condominium property than may be existent outside of the condominium organization.
the Southern regional subsociety
may be thought of as roughly
Perhaps unbelievers meet the basic human need for order and social integration within the subsociety
of science itself and its hierarchical structure.
Surrounded by our culture, our own little world, we formed a subsociety
, particularly in New York, with its many left-wing organizations, art and music groups, unions, local clubs and centers, and a thousand personal connections.
Hence, with anomie/underclass models, blacks living in urban ghettos or underclass communities can be said to be "members" of the same subsociety (ghetto, underclass) merely by being residents of the same community.
When drug subcultural formation is understood in terms of communication of this specialized knowledge (rather than as an adaptation to structural constraints), it becomes more difficult to simply define a drug subculture as the sole possession of an isolated ghetto subsociety spread out across the country.
Further, because anomie/underclass models define membership in drug subcultures by subsocietal adaptations to aggregate conditions, they are inclined to ignore individual differences within the subsociety in willingness to accept the latest drug lore.
For example, the growth in the size of the at-risk underclass subsociety in the 1980s has been used to explain the recent "crack epidemic.
Unfortunately, if minority drug use continues to be framed in terms of adaptations made by a subsociety, minority drug epidemics will be attributed to growth in "at risk" populations.
This is exemplified by the work of John Calmore, who offers an incisive analysis of some of the complexities of what he calls "integrationist options within the subsociety
of intellectuals" (Calmore, 1992).