In the present analysis, however, the PC1 weightings for the upper and middle facial subtenses are either negative (NAS, DKS, and SIS) or weakly positive (NDS).
There are a few measurements where the male average is proportionately much larger than the female average, notably glabella subtense (GLS, around 150-200%, depending on series), supraorbital subtense (SOS, around 120-170%), and the dimensions of the mastoid process (MDB and MDH, around 110-150%).
As for facial flatness, northern Indians' dacryon subtense (DKS) is on average smaller than southern Indians', whereas their zygomaxillary subtense (SSS) is relatively large (Table 7 and Supplementary Table S11).
They note in Figure 3 that as ground distance increased, angular subtenses of exocentric distances varied substantially (0-150[degrees]), but those of egocentric distances varied minimally (particularly beyond 15 m, or 50 ft).
Moreover, differences in angular subtense between the two viewpoint elevations were relatively greater with smaller ground distances (see Figure 3); the authors did not report whether differences in estimates between the two elevations depended on ground distance.