The electrodes were implanted in the subthalamic nucleus
in eight patients, in the globus pallidus internus in three, and in the ventral intermediate nucleus in one.
The research has revealed why a subset of neurons in part of the brain called the subthalamic nucleus
is a potential target for pain relief in PD, as well as other diseases such as dementia, motor neuron disease and Huntington's, and certain forms of a migraine.
Based on this model, DeLong and coworkers succeeded in the recovery of a MPTP-induced experimental monkey model of parkinsonism by destruction of the subthalamic nucleus
, (17) which led to deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus
for the treatment of drug-resistant parkinsonian patients.
Neuropsychological consequences of chronic bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus
in Parkinson's disease.
involvement in children: a neuroimaging pattern-recognition approach.
For PD, the Subthalamic Nucleus
(STN) is often chosen as the target brain structure (Figure 1) .
found that ceftriaxone treated DLB rat with improved neuronal density and activity in the hippocampal CA1 area, suppressed hyperactivity in the subthalamic nucleus
, and reduced [alpha]-synuclein accumulation.
Hwynn et al., "Low-frequency versus high-frequency subthalamic nucleus
deep brain stimulation on postural control and gait in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative study," Brain Stimulation, vol.
Primary diagnoses and surgical targets were as follows: Parkinson's disease (subthalamic nucleus
(STN)), dystonia (globus pallidus interna (GPi)), and essential tremor (ET) (ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (Vim)).
Moreover, this area seems to be involved in the hyperdirect pathway connecting the subthalamic nucleus
(STN) with cortical regions engaged in executive functioning and attention processes .
Different causes, including genetic, metabolic, pharmacological and structural, can lead to disturbances in basal ganglia, which leads to the loss of inhibition in subthalamic nucleus
resulting in involuntary movements (1-4).