128-QAM Receiver: Receiver block comprises of Polarization Splitter, optical null, phase shifter, photodetector, electrical subtractor
Arslan, "Self-Biasing High Precision CMOS Current Subtractor
for Current-Mode Circuits", Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol.13, no.4, pp.19-24, 2013.
. A differential amplifier with unity gain can be used to provide an output voltage that is equal to the difference of two input voltages .
The implementation of full adder and subtractor
as the major component of the arithmetic procedures can precisely influence the functioning of the entire architecture.
b) Applying subtractor
of mixture of Gaussian2 to M;
Adders/subtractors 1343 12-bit adder 255 13-bit adder 136 14-bit adder 68 15-bit adder 34 16-bit adder 17 4-bit subtractor
17 8-bit adder 816 Comparators 2 6-bit comparator equal 1 6-bit comparator greater 1 Counters 21 4-bit up counter 17 5-bit up counter 2 6-bit up counter 2 Registers 76 16-bit register 16 8-bit register 60 12-bit latches 272 Table 4: Comparison among VLSI implementations of VBSME architectures.
Koprowski, "Tonometer for contact measurement such as cornea pressure and visco elasticity of eye, has two filters connected to subtractor
, and analog-to-digital converter connected to microprocessor, where one of filter is connected to microprocessor," Patent Number: PL406553-A1, Patent Assignee: Politechnika Wroclawska, 2014.
Send [1/2] 1/2 and [W.sub.i-1] to MSD adder and MSD subtractor
, and write the results in the variables W1 and W2; send D and [W.sub.i-1] to MSD adder and MSD subtractor
, and write the results in variables W3 and W4;
From internal structure implementation point of view, the current subtractor
(CS) with current differencing capability ,  forms one of the most important sub-stages of recently proposed high-performance CM active building blocks (ABBs) such as current differencing transconductance amplifier (CDTA) , , , current differencing buffered amplifier (CDBA) , , , , operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) , , or second-generation differential current conveyor (DCCII) -.
[u.sub.16A] constitutes a subtractor
circuit, with [y.sub.i] minus [x.sub.i] and voltage comparator LM339DG implement sign operational.