Recently, there is development of assisted reproductive techniques for rational treatment for these patients, and to date there have been reported pregnancies using subzonal
insemination (SUZI) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
Cyathochitina angusta Nolvak & Grahn (see Nolvak et al.
Sperm characteristics and outcome of human assisted fertilization by subzonal
insemination and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Variations of microinsemination in clinical use include: zona pellucida drilling, (30) partial zona dissection, (31) and zona opening, (32,33) all of which promote the passage of sperm through the zona pellucida; and subzonal
sperm insertion,34) by which motile sperm are injected into the perivitelline space using a micropipette.
Tegumen with central projection narrow and more or less twisted, reaching to base of uncus; uncus broad, 1.5 times as wide as long, distally uneven, apically slightly indented, laterally with auriform extensions; gnathos elbow-shaped with small spines distally; saccus short and narrow; valva with inner lamella extremely expanded and folded, transtilla foliated, strongly sclerotized with spines, ventro-distal process with flattened top, wavy and serrate dorsally; aedeagus with suprazonal sheath equal to subzonal
sheath, suprazonal sheath with lateral small spines on both sides; juxta more or less nose-like, upper margin V-shaped.
Safronova, I.N.--2010--O podzonal'noi strukture rastitel'nogo pokrova stepnoi zony v evropeiskoi chasti Rossii (On the subzonal
structure of plant cover in the steppe zone of European Russia)--Botanicheskii Zhurnal 95: 1126-1134.
Implementing a Subzonal
Model into the Airflow Model COMIS
In the late 1980s Simon Fishel in the UK pioneered the technique of sperm subzonal
injection (SUZI) in humans, involving injecting sperm under the zona pellucida (ZP), (21) leading to a pregnancy reported in 1988.
However, later study showed that, at least in the northwestern coast of the island, the only rocks accessible now belong to the Vormsi Stage, containing the subzonal
boundaries coincide with the northern limits of several species of woody plants with distinct upright or prostrate growth forms, and ultimately with the northern limit of woody plant species.