Key words: toxicosis, Knemidocoptes species, xylitol, nectar feeder, avian, Cape sugarbird, Promerops cafer
7) Much of the work done on xylitol metabolism in animals is done on typical laboratory animals and not on pollinators, such as the Cape sugarbird.
Abstract: Twenty-nine wild Cape sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) died acutely after ingestion of a homemade xylitol nectar solution from a bird feeder.
On January 9, 2014, a large flock of free-flying, wild Cape sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) were exposed to a bird feeder containing a 21.
The Cape sugarbirds in this report died acutely, and either there was no time for coagulopathy to develop or it is potentially not a feature of xylitol toxicity in Cape sugarbirds.
In these Cape sugarbirds, a diagnosis of presumptive xylitol toxicosis was made based on the history of exposure to xylitol; the typical clinical signs of acute xylitol toxicosis, such as ataxia, depression, weakness, seizures, collapse, and death (3-6); and the macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings that did not show any other obvious cause of death.
Results of various studies have shown that xylose as a nectar sugar does not commonly form a large constituent of nectar consumed by Cape sugarbirds, although it is present in a small proportion of the Proteaceae, which form a large part of the Cape sugarbirds nectar diet.
In addition to its ice creams, the store will offer upscale products from other specialty shops such as Valerie Confections, Sugarbird
Teas & Sweets, and Blue Cupcake.
In addition, Ashton Canning, Anglo American Farms and Sugarbird
of Malmesbury have maintained trade here, despite subsidised competition from Greek packers in particular.