The samples comprised tablets, suspensions, injections, and mixtures containing sulphadoxine
, pyrimethamine, quinine, lumefantrine, piperaquine, sulphamethoxypyridazine, artemether, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin APIs.
 Ampicillin + Colistin Died Chloramphenicol + Recovered Sulphadoxine
Sarvamangala Devi None Died et al.
Sequence analysis of genes associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine
pyrimethamine in P .
Pyrimethamine with sulphadoxine
complex is the most recommended and efficient antifolate prescribed against PfDHFR.
Calculation sheets for considered weight of patient for Chloroquine @ 25mg/kg (Table 1), Primaquine @ 0.25mg/kg (Table 2), Artesunate Combination Therapy [(i) Artesunate @ 4 mg/kg daily for 3 days; and (ii) Sulphadoxine
@ 25mg/kg body weight and Pyrimethamine @ 1.25 mg/kg body weight] (Table 3) for the prescribed drug dosage schedules of various age groups in the 'guideline 2011' are summarized herein through comparative study of 'considered weight of patient' for recommended antimalarial drugs (Table 4).
Each trial involved more than 3,000 children who were treated intermittently with anti-malarial drugs sulphadoxine
pyrimethamine and amodiaquine.
The rising problem of resistance to the classical drugs (chloroquine and sulphadoxine
pyrimethamine) (3,4) and the problem of recrudescence of artemisinin stress the need to look for new antimalarial agents (5).
falciparum that lead to resistance to both sulphadoxine
and pyremethamine have been identified.
However, with current massive deployment of malaria control measures such as the widespread use of long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs), use of sulphadoxine
pyremithamine as intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp), effective malaria case management with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), indoor residual spraying among others, the epidemiology of malaria in Nigeria appears to be changing with concomitant reduction in malaria rates among children presenting in health facilities.
Also, out of 27 sulphadoxine
(SDX)-pyrimethamine (PMT) suspensions analysed for content, 16 samples (59.3%) failed to meet the USP limits for content of SDX and PMT of 90-110% .
Resistance to sulphadoxine
and sulfa drugs arise from the accumulation of mutations at five codons in the dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) gene leading to amino acid change S436A, A437G, K540E, A581G, and S436F .