Introducing LNG-fuelled ships into BHP's maritime supply chain will eliminate NOx (nitrogen oxide) and SOx (sulphur oxide
) emissions and significantly reduce C02 emissions along the busiest bulk transport route globally.
"L&T will continue to play a significant role in this market of sulphur oxide
and nitrogen oxide reduction."
emission was only at 41 parts per million (ppm), compared to the 245 ppm limit set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the 700 ppm limit set by the World Bank.
The contract with the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) has been developed in response to new limits on the sulphur content of marine fuels that came into force in January 2015, as well as rules that the sulphur oxide
(SOx) content of marine fuels must be monitored and reported by member states of the EU.
LNG-fuelled ships have reduced emissions (nitrogen oxide, sulphur oxide
and particulate matter) as compared with heavy bunker oil and even low-sulphur marine diesel.
The report said Welsh emissions were "much higher" than the UK average for nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxide
and, most notably, for lead and carbon monoxide.
Annex VI of the Marpol Convention (in force since 19 May 2005) regulates emissions from ships of nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulphur oxide
(SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
The study concluded that Heritage's "performance additive calcium carbonate (HM10 series) demonstrates ability to significantly reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gases and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxide, sulphur oxide
, and particulates)." Said Holly Hansen, Heritage v.p.
10561, as amended] came into force in May 2005, setting limits to sulphur oxide
and nitrogen oxide emissions from ships.
The system is designed to clean the sulphur oxide
(SO2) and particulates from the exhaust gas.
There has been about 60% decrease in SOx (sulphur oxide
) emissions from RasGas operations and 54% in total acid/sour gas flaring compared to 2010, the report said, highlighting the 66% decrease in total VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions compared to 2010.
In addition, nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide
emissions will also be reduced (up to 40% less nitrogen oxides and 10ppm sulphur oxides
compared with 600ppm of conventional Jet-Al-fuel) due to the very low nitrogen and sulphur content of the biofuel compared to fossil fuel.