superelevation

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superelevation

(ˌsuːpərˌɛlɪˈveɪʃən)
n
1. (Civil Engineering) another name for bank27
2. (Civil Engineering) the difference between the heights of the sides of a road or railway track on a bend
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

bank1

(bæŋk)
n.
1. a long pile or heap; mass: a bank of earth; a bank of clouds.
2. a slope or acclivity.
3. the slope immediately bordering a stream course along which the water normally runs.
4. a broad elevation of the sea floor around which the water is relatively shallow but not a hazard to surface navigation.
5. Also called cant. the inclination of the bed of a banked road or track.
6. the lateral inclination of an aircraft, esp. during a turn.
7. the cushion of a billiard table.
v.t.
8. to border with or like a bank; embank: banking the flooded river with sandbags.
9. to form into a bank or heap: to bank snow along a path.
10. to build (a road or track) with an upward slope from the inner edge to the outer edge at a curve.
11. to tip or incline (an airplane) laterally.
12. (in billiards or pool)
a. to drive (a ball) to the cushion.
b. to pocket (the object ball) by driving it against the bank.
13. to cover (a fire) with ashes or fuel to make it burn long and slowly.
v.i.
14. to build up in or form banks, as clouds or snow.
15. (of an airplane) to tip or incline laterally.
16. (of a road or track) to slope upward from the inner edge to the outer edge at a curve.
[1150–1200; Middle English banke, Old English hōbanca couch, c. Old Norse bakki elevation, hill < Germanic *bank-ōn-; compare bank3, bench]

bank2

(bæŋk)
n.
1. an institution for receiving, lending, and safeguarding money and transacting other financial business.
2. the stock of pieces drawn upon by players in the course of a game, as dominoes.
3. the person or office in a gambling house that holds and distributes cash.
4. a storage place: blood bank; sperm bank.
5. a store or reserve.
v.i.
6. to keep money in or have an account with a bank.
v.t.
7. to deposit in a bank.
8. bank on, to count on; depend on.
[1425–75; late Middle English < Middle French banque < Italian banca table, counter, moneychanger's table < Germanic; compare Old High German bank bench]

bank3

(bæŋk)
n.
1. an arrangement of objects in a line or in tiers: a bank of lights.
2. a bench for rowers in a galley.
3. the group of rowers occupying one bench or rowing one oar.
4. a number of similar devices connected to act together: a bank of transformers.
v.t.
5. to arrange in a bank.
[1200–50; Middle English bank(e) < Old French banc bench < Germanic; see bank1]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
Translations

superelevation

n (of bend)Überhöhung f
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007
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References in periodicals archive ?
First of all, actual superelevations are compared to the calculated ones (according to the methodology valid in Lithuania) in the researched curves in railway lines Vilnius-Kena and Kaisiadorys-Kybartai.
The carried out research concludes that actual superelevations are calculated using other speeds that are usually less than 0.8 or 0.9 from the max permissible speeds.
Designing a railway track, a track gauge, superelevation, a transition curve, horizontal curve radius, vertical curve radius and a gradient are identified in the curves.
Research on the intensive formation of external rail side wear in the curve points to the following factors: uncontrolled (railway line plan and profile), partially controlled (train weight, axial loads) and controlled (train speed, rail and wheel steel toughness, wheel and rail lubrication, superelevation, gauge) (Povilaitiene, Laurinavicius 2004).
The article looks at geometrical track parameter superelevation the determination of which may vary in different countries; however, the essence remains the same--superelevation is calculated in respect of rated track parameters: track radius and average and/or maximum permissible rated train speed.
Superelevation Deficiency, Superelevation Excess and Uncompensated Lateral Acceleration
While analyzing railway curves and superelevation, the following parameters are usually taken into account: curve radius R, superelevation h, superelevation excess [h.sub.e], superelevation deficiency [h.sub.d], lateral acceleration a, balanced speed [v.sub.eq].
The difference between the levels of two rails in the curve is called superelevation and is arranged to compensate a part of lateral acceleration.
where: v--train speed in the curve, km/h; [phi]--superelevation angle; g--gravitational acceleration, m/[s.sup.2]; R--curve radius, m; 2 x [b.sub.0]--the distance between rail axes m; h--actual superelevation, mm.
where: [v.sup.2]--train speed in the curve, km/h; R--curve radius, m; h--actual superelevation, mm.
Equilibrium superelevation exists when lateral acceleration is equal to zero and is calculated according to the following formula:
New roads solved these problems with further technical refinements, such as spiral transition curves and superelevations -- solutions grounded in the realm of engineering rather than aesthetics.