Traditionalists objected, arguing that "the new philanthropy was itself animated by the same spirit that animated the commercial society it intended to reform: the spirit of technology, concentration, and rationalism." Or as Orestes Brownson put it, "Philanthropy is a mere natural sentiment; charity, a supernatural virtue
But in the state of corrupt nature he needs this for two reasons, in order to be healed, and in order to achieve the meritorious good of supernatural virtue
. By this stage Aquinas has effectively dismantled the grace-sin dialectic through the theoretical construct of human nature ("pure nature").
Brown on the historical background of the questions about the supernatural virtue
of faith, while R.
Upton identified Satyrane with Sir John Perrott.(13) John Wilson opted for ~Naturall Heroic Activity, as subsidiary to the Morall Virtues'; Henley invoked ~Finn or Fionn, the warrior son of Cumhal (Coole)'; Osgood saw in him a rugged frontiersman; Padelford cites folklore accounts of the unions between humans and fairies.(14) The most recent discussion of Satyrane known to me is also non-specific, remarking that ~the ambiguity of Satyrane's characterization suits the allegory of Books I, II and IV, which stresses the affinity of natural virtue for goodness and truth but also its inferiority to and dependence upon supernatural virtue
'.(15) But if Jordan's general hypothesis holds good, Satyrane is half gentile and half Jewish.
However, what emerges as perhaps the essay's most profound message is that Marcel, the Catholic philosopher, teaches that the supernatural virtue
of hope genuinely arises in its purity and intensity in those situations wherein total despair is a real temptation (p.
To use the title of the recent Apostolic Exhortation of Pope Francis, it comes from the "Joy of the Gospel." Thanks to the supernatural virtue
of faith which most Filipinos received when they were baptized as Christians, they believe in a life after death and in the Divine Providence of God their Father who always sends good things to them, even if at times in the form of disaster, tribulation, or trials.
But because grace perfects rather than destroys nature, both the natural and supernatural virtues
are of worth and should be pursued.