However, and as noted above, I found that this mode of analysis made power and discourse virtual demiurges, not only erasing agency but also hardening the very categories that were being critiqued by making them seem self-evident and produced by the currents of history and practice, they became the sum total of power working through various institutions in some superorganic
(41) Individuals and "culture" then become interchangeable: "[Aboriginal nations] are a culturally homogeneous collective of people" who share "a common language, traditions, customs and historical experience." (42) Specific actions of individuals then become divorced from the world in which they occurred (inverted), and re-ascribed to a superorganic
"culture." Thus, Mrs.
with construction of the monument [by the signature of the dictator], Taako's anti-colonialism lost its "multiaccentuality" and became a uniaccentual symbol, in that case the heroine becomes "superorganic
" and the monument projects the wish fulfilment of a group within the nation'.
Finally, Boas (1986:245) shows that there are hypotheses according to which human culture is "something superorganic
," which follows laws that are inherent in the culture itself, but are unwanted by the individual members.
Another short section contrasts what Hartman labels as "organic" versus "superorganic
" musics (citing the ethnomusicologist Manuel Pena); these terms contrast local or home-grown musics versus those constructed primarily for purposes of purchase and sale across demographics (p.
Early folklorists often neglected to pay attention to the actual individual tradition participants, positing a superorganic
view of tradition that was very far from a view of tradition that could incorporate considerations of individual brain structure and function (Krohn 1926).
--, "The Superorganic
in American Cultural Geography", en Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol.
In The Dialectical Biologist, Levins and Lewontin reject one-sided notions of mechanical reductionism and superorganic
holism (common in ecology) and the hierarchical conceptions of life and the universe that they both generate.
That is, there is a danger in objectifying culture and assigning it static, 'superorganic
', causative characteristics, within sociopolitical systems that are constantly changing (Cosgrove and Jackson 1987; Jackson 1995), partially so, because of the ongoing negotiation of events associated with the hazard in question.
In the final chapter pairing, which discusses culture, the authors take on the anthropological debate over whether culture exists external to the community ("superorganic
," in the words of Alfred Kroeber) or is an internal system for negotiating interpretation and communal meaning.