However, and as noted above, I found that this mode of analysis made power and discourse virtual demiurges, not only erasing agency but also hardening the very categories that were being critiqued by making them seem self-evident and produced by the currents of history and practice, they became the sum total of power working through various institutions in some superorganic
42) Specific actions of individuals then become divorced from the world in which they occurred (inverted), and re-ascribed to a superorganic
Finally, Boas (1986:245) shows that there are hypotheses according to which human culture is "something superorganic
," which follows laws that are inherent in the culture itself, but are unwanted by the individual members.
Early folklorists often neglected to pay attention to the actual individual tradition participants, positing a superorganic
view of tradition that was very far from a view of tradition that could incorporate considerations of individual brain structure and function (Krohn 1926).
in American Cultural Geography", en Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol.
In The Dialectical Biologist, Levins and Lewontin reject one-sided notions of mechanical reductionism and superorganic
holism (common in ecology) and the hierarchical conceptions of life and the universe that they both generate.
1917, << The Superorganic
>>, American Anthropologist, 19 : 163-213.
However, only a few practitioners, notably Carter (1968) and Zelinsky (1973), concerned themselves with the conceptual implications of the landscape approach and even then the concern was with links to the superorganic
concept of culture from anthropology (Kroeber, 1917) and not with behaviorist concepts from psychology.
Folklorists frequently approach cinema, especially popular cinema, as an artistic text which has some kind of superorganic
existence outside of the culture which produces it (see Thomas 1980, Degh 1994).