The color along the trajectories represents supersaturation
experienced by droplets, with supersaturations
below 0% colored black.
Chernoff & Bertram (2010) found that it is a fairly efficient ice nucleus as it exhibited onset ice supersaturations
between 110% and 120%.
Funding of the research aspects of the study (2 of the 4 duplicate urine supersaturations
, pregnancy testing, and statistical analysis and all Cystone[R] and placebo tablets) were provided by the Mayo Foundation and Himalaya Health Care.
Depending on laboratory availability, additional parameters, such as potassium, phosphorus, sulphate, ammonia and urea nitrogen, can be requested to allow the calculations of supersaturations
for calcium oxalate, uric acid and brushite (calcium phosphate).
The effect of additives on crystal growth kinetics and threshold supersaturations
for growth are then introduced, followed by chapters on the processes of mineralization in natural and artificial systems, the morphology and size distribution of crystals and the role of additives on these processes.
Smith and Sweett (1971), for example, using a smaller reactor than in the present study, with different foreign anions ([Cl.sup.-] instead of N[O.sup.-.sub.3]) and larger supersaturations
, under both seeded and unseeded conditions, reported an activation energy of 63 kJ/mol over the temperature range 30-90[degrees]C.
As a result, the urinary relative calcium oxalate supersaturations
[based on EQUIL (9)] change from 13.32, the value obtained from the measured analysis, to 15.58 (+17%).
Changes made in the processing system since those early days included a new salt production procedure and equipment designs that allowed higher supersaturations
for rapid growth.
Foliar fragments, treated at 475[degrees]C for 36 h to remove organic matter, were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as crystals grew on the foliar surfaces in artificial seawater at calcite supersaturations
up to 52-fold.
The measurements were made with 18 different aerosol instruments (Table 3), and within the six aerosol property classes there are about 70 different measured variables related to different particle size thresholds, cloud condensation nucleus supersaturations
The (1-1 0) surface of calcite is one of several surfaces that are likely to be expressed during ectopic crystal growth, particularly at the higher of the supersaturations
used herein, which actually were significantly lower than those of Runnegar (1984).
For the flight on 13 March, the concentrations of particles activating as cloud droplets were 80 and 130 [cm.sup.-3] outside the plume for supersaturations
of 0.23% and 0.50%, respectively (labeled [CCN.sub.0.23] and [CCN.sub.0.50]; Figs.