For the linearly polarized backscattering cross section, the quad-polarized covariance matrix is used for the ocean surface wave
polarization signatures, as follows :
The design of the mushroom-like EBG structure was based on the high-impedance surface (HIS) principle  and subsequently incorporated onto the antenna substrate for suppressing the surface wave
To estimate these characteristics, we applied five geophysical methods: spectral ratio (HIV), frequency-wavenumber (F-K), multichannel analysis of surface waves
(MASW), multichannel analysis of microtremor (MAM), and gravimetric method.
Dal Moro, G.: 2014, Surface wave
analysis for near surface applications.
(94) This method is particularly feasible for locating sources using surface wave
propagation for frequencies above 0.05 Hz because it is less sensitive to uncertainties associated with strong lateral heterogeneity in the crust than the beamforming method is.
In the aspect of advanced detection of surface wave
and scattered wave in underground coal mine, the advanced detection technique of Rayleigh surface wave
was carried out in Fangezhuang Mine (Cheng et al., 2014).
At resonance frequency, high impedance could be obtained and hence the EBG do not support any surface wave
near the resonance frequency, resulting in a frequency band gap.
Li, "A [sigma]-coordinate three-dimensional numerical model for surface wave
propagation," International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, vol.
Storms moving over the ocean can leave "secret" traces on the seafloor known as ripple bedforms, which develop when surface waves
create seafloor currents that disrupt sediment and form ripples on the ocean floor.
Bloch Surface Waves
(BSW) are light waves that travel on the surface of insulating--or dielectric--materials, such as glass.
Bloch surface waves
(BSW) are light waves that travel on the surface of insulating - or "dielectric" - materials, such as glass.
The underlying design approach has much wider applications, ranging from microwave to optics for the control of any kind of electromagnetic surface waves