When the Hmong lived in Laos, they survived by following swidden
agriculture, (14) but their new life in the United States required them to adjust to an environment that did not support their agricultural traditions.
They would also have been interplanted between taro beds and pondfields as they are today, and have been planted in swidden
fields in the first year of fallow.
They practice swidden
cultivation to produce rice and form mosaics of agroforestry plots in different maturity stages.
With their own initiatives and capital, many farmers are converting their rubber fields and swidden
to palm oil fields.
One day, two earthly brothers called Timungan happened upon an unusually large tuber in their swidden
The interconnectedness between the indigenous economies of Borneo and the global economy remains a sparse area of study--the focus has been on hunter-gathering and swidden
activities, or questions related to communities as forest custodians, rather than the role and responses of indigenous groups as traders in relation to the global economy, or what Wallerstein and others refer to as the world-system (see Wallerstein 1980, 1989, 2004).
Central to the Karen royal imaginary is the millenarian figure of a leader who will guide the scattered Karen nation in their search for knowledge and wisdom, whose perceived loss is 'the reason why the Karen were reduced to swidden
agriculture and hunting, and why their insights into the global forces of cities and states were diminished'.
80, more than half-way through the book, after he has provided ideal typical characterizations of swidden
and sawah (wet rice) agriculture (Geertz 1963, pp.
In agriculture, these rituals consist of offerings of paper and incense to the nature spirits of a site selected for swidden
during clearing in order to prevent their interference in work.
Before clearing and burning natural vegetation to establish a new garden in any location, people who practise swidden
farming, with its periodic moving of gardens from one location to another, have to decide where they are next going to cultivate (Conklin 1961:313; Ellen 1982:46-47).
Comparatively, deforestation resulting from swidden
agriculture is relatively low, even when considering the negative impact from accidental fires (Carmenta et al.
This paper is an historical account of a system of trade between two peoples in interior Borneo: longhouse-dwelling swidden
agriculturists and hunting and gathering nomads, in this case, the Penan.