The features that made swiddening
anathema to states were exactly what made it attractive to state-evading peoples.
It is still sparsely populated, with the majority of its people involved in swiddening
, and with approximately 80% of the land falling under the different Indonesian government definitions of forest, varying between production forest and conservation forest (MOF 2009, Shantiko et al.
As Walker shows, conflicts over resources also occurred between and within tribal societies, between swiddening
groups and between swidden cultivators and hunter-gatherers.
But we go a step further: we argue that a particular form of swiddening
developed in parallel with the plantation system--it did not precede the plantation in any straightforward manner.
Subsistence hunting and swiddening
played important subsidiary roles.
(15.) In this usage "Sakai" was employed to distinguish the swiddening
Orang Asli populations from their hunter-gathering "Semang" neighbours, but authors differed in the qualities they attached to these terras.
My point was that low-key swiddening
in Samoa was, at least until very recently, capable of providing the sort of surplus needed for major ceremonies, particularly the installation of high chiefs, and that there was no reason to suppose that there had been any change from a system introduced by the initial settlers.
Here, however, a problem arises: contrary to his apparent assumption, it is not clear that most states prior to our era (that is, prior to the past century or so) desired either to end hill swiddening
or to appropriate hill labor.
Shifting cultivation (swiddening
), agricultural intensification and greater use of these fragile sloping areas are causing serious soil erosion, leading to severely decreased soil productivity and agro-ecological, environmental quality, catchment function and socio-economic problems.
Farming with fire and water; the human ecology of a composite Swiddening
community in Vietnam's northern mountains.
This technique was congruent with overall goals set for the SMHDP of not only ending opium cultivation and swiddening
, but also integrating uplanders into the Thai nation, helping them to gain citizenship and land rights, developing health, education and communications, and improving literacy and ability to speak Thai.
In mountain areas, in Western Hunan, swiddening
was still found before 1950, but there were wet rice terraces along river banks and in the valleys irrigated by means of water wheels.