effect leads to decrease of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) by reducing norepinephrine release.
Local anesthetics are known to cause vasodilatation by increasing capillary permeability with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and sympatholytic
Dexmedetomidine is an alpha2 agonist of newer generation, with sedative, sympatholytic
and anxiolytic properties.
Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective agonist of [[alpha].sub.2]-adrenergic receptors, has sedative, analgesic, and sympatholytic
properties, and it has been used for analgesia, sedation, and anesthetic sparing.
Dexmedetomidine is a selective [alpha]-adrenoreceptor agonist commonly used in intensive care units for sedation and analgesia, which has sympatholytic
, anxiolytic and haemodynamic stabilising effects.
Its inhibitory action on N-type calcium channels decreases norepinephrine release from the nerve terminals thus explaining its sympatholytic
These investigations were conflicting in techniques and results, particularly with respect to the rate and seriousness of RAS1.8 Different method utilized to get relieve from RAS consists of utilizing injections of vasodilators and lidocaine (nitroglycerine, calcium channel blockers) within arteries, sympatholytic
May cause bradycardia and hypotension due to sympatholytic
effects Ketorolac Acetic acid that nonselectively inhibits cyclooxygenase, anti-inflammatory.
(16,17) Heat exposure, large or carbohydratedense meals, alcohol, dehydration, and medications with potential for vasodilation, volume depletion, bradycardia, or sympatholytic
medications (eg, antihypertensives, tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian agents, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors) could exacerbate OH symptoms.
Due to its central sympatholytic
effect, dexmedetomidine is useful in blunting hemodynamic responses in perioperative period.
Beta-blocker therapy has sympatholytic
properties and is associated with a reduction in the patient's heart rate without significantly dropping the mean arterial pressure.
[alpha]2 adrenergic receptor agonists due to their sedative, analgesic, perioperative sympatholytic
and hemodynamic stabilizing properties may be useful as adjuvants to intrathecal local anesthetics.