These effects were characterized by cell rounding and detachment of the monolayer, but syncytia
were not evident (online Technical Appendix Figure 4).
Hysteroscopic Findings Findings Primary Secondary Total Infertility Infertility Submucous myoma 2 (3%) 2 (7%) 4 (17%) Polyps 2 (3%) 4 (14%) 6 (18%) Septum 3 (4%) 1 (4%) 4 (17%) Syncytia
0 1 (4%) 1 (3%) Atrophic endometrium 0 5 (18%) 5 (15%) Hyperplastic endometrium 2 (2%) 12 (43%) 14 (41%) Foreign body 0 0 0 Table 5.
While becoming sedentary, they develop feeding sites called syncytia
to mature and produce new offspring.
It happens because in susceptible cultivars, nematodes depend entirely on functional syncytia
or giant cells to acquire nutrients to develop into reproductive adult males or number of adult feeding females, the greater the stress on the plant leading to alteration in physiological functions like up-take of nutrients, photosynthesis (Anwar, 1995; Williamson and Hussey, 1996) and consequently plant growth.
sup] Necrotic adipocytes attract macrophages to collect and form syncytia
around the adipocytes [sup] and produce TNF-alpha and IL-6, which in turn may inhibit the local production of adiponectin in a paracrine fashion.
Two genera, Heterodera and Globodera are especially dangerous in case of cyst nematodes and induce specialized feeding cells called syncytia
(Jones, 1981; Hussey and Grundler, 1998).
In the bottom of the crypts, epithelial cells are stretched so as to form syncytia
and that is interrupted in places surrounding the lymphoid tissue and is open to direct contact with the external environment.
glycogen granules are replaced by vacuole-like cavities.
The BNC then fuse apically with uterine LE and form syncytia
of trinucleate cells, thereby assimilating and replacing some of the uterine LE.
Some commonly found cytopathic effects include rounding, vacuolation, clustering, formation of cytoplasmic bridges, syncytia
formation, inclusion body formation and cell death.
Typical MV-induced CPE was seen as cell fusion yielding syncytia
RBAC also inhibited syncytia
formation, and the inhibition was maximized (75%) at a concentration of 100 [mu]/g/ml.