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However, in the HIRLAM 3DVAR this scheme is not used for in situ observations such as SYNOP, TEMP, and PILOT to avoid data redundancy associated with the assumption about a static observation increment (HIRLAM System Documentation,
In our work, an important volume of meteorological information, including RAOBs data, SYNOP reports and rain gauge data, has been used to define and evaluate the rain detection method.
Ziese, 2015: GPCC Monitoring Product: Near RealTime Monthly Land-Surface Precipitation From RainGauges Based on SYNOP and CLIMAT Data.
(top) Absolute and (bottom) relative DFS: that is, information content for the main conventional [surface synoptic (SYNOP), aircraft reports (AIREP), upper air (TEMP)] and nonconventional (GNSS, HRW AMV, radar reflectivity, and Doppler wind) observation types assimilated by AROME 3D-Var.
Instead, WRFDA analyzes atmospheric variables at the lowest model level by assimilating 2-m temperature and moisture and 10-m zonal (U) and meridional (V) wind observations from surface stations [surface synoptic observations (SYNOP), aviation routine weather reports (METAR), ship observations (SHIP), buoy observations (BUOY)].
Version 2.4 assimilated surface synoptic observations (SYNOP), aviation routine weather reports (METARs), Reseau Meteorologique Cooperatif du Quebec (RMCQ), and American meteorological cooperative network [Standard Hydrometeorological Exchange Format (SHEF)] precipitation observations (Lespinas et al.
Symbols below the abscissa are according to WMO FM 12 SYNOP coding practices for surface stations (WMO 2010) and denote the following: midlevel cloud type [C.sub.M], low-level cloud type [C.sub.L], low- and midlevel cloud cover in octas [N.sub.LM], significant weather (WW), and rainfall amount (mm; RRR).
We verified the UFS forecasts produced during JJA 2015 using the different forecasting domains against observations taken at the surface synoptic observation (SYNOP) weather station at Schiphol Airport and at 24 urban weather stations attached to lampposts at a height of 4 m throughout Amsterdam (see Fig.
The precipitation information contained with the surface synoptic observation (SYNOP) report is collected for 3-hourly and daily periods at the fixed synoptic hours and distributed in near-real time, although the records for each station may not always be complete for an entire monthly record.
Thus, reformatting SYNOP (surface land) reports to BUFR works reasonably well.
Surface meteorological ("SYNOP") stations record the daily hours of direct sunshine (exceeding 120 W nr2, with a resolution of 0.1 h) and were used to generate a climatology of days with greater than 6 h available for cooking ("cooking days"; locations of SYNOPs used are shown in supplementary Fig.
SYNOP, consists of manual cloud cover observations in oktas.