When seen without cystic fibrosis, it is called aquagenic keratoderma, aquagenic syringeal
acrokeratoderma, aquagenic palmoplantar acrokeratoderma, and transient reactive papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma.
We recommend diagnostic endoscopy about once a month for crop, proventricular, or ventricular foreign body or disease; choanal, tracheal, and syringeal
exam; cloacal disease; as well as for laparoscopic imaging or biopsy.
AQUAGENIC KERATODERMA--also known as aquagenic wrinkling of the palms, aquagenic syringeal
keratoderma, and aquagenic palmoplantar keratoderma--is a rare disorder clinically characterized by transient excessive wrinkling of the palms shortly after immersion in water.
In the proximity of the trachea, the tracheosyringeal trunk bifurcated into the tracheal artery, which extended cranially, and the syringeal
artery, which extended caudally, to supply the relevant organs.
In songbirds, fundamental frequency is controlled and modified over an extensive range by the complex syringeal
musculature whereas in nonsongbirds fundamental frequency is more strongly correlated with pressure in the interclavicular air sac then in the cranial thoraxic air sac or in the trachea [36, 37].
Given that their messages are generally not encoded in vowels and consonants, but in variations of pitch, rhythm, periodicity, and spectral content, it could be argued that their laryngeal (or in the case of birds, syringeal
) capabilities are exercised better than those of many humans.