bringing another million barrels per day of tar sand
crude oil also known as "diluted bitumen" to Gulf Coast refineries.
State Department will approve construction of the Keystone XL pipeline which would take tar sand
from Hardisty, Alberta, through six U.S.
Recent rises in barrel prices and developments in oil exploration have enabled companies to extract oil from earth - known as tar sand
- in Canada and Venezuela.
Kristen O'Neill reported for E in June 2009 that Canada is considered the second nation in world oil reserves, after Saudi Arabia, based on their supply of tar sands
. "It sounds like an appealing energy solution to some, but the environmental costs of extracting oil from Alberta's tar sand
would exact a heavy toll," wrote O'Neill.
Indigenous people in Canada have been badly affected as the tar sand
is mined near their settlements and has polluted hunting grounds."
Researchers working on an experiment for a Nasa mission to Mars realised their method for removing organic material from rocks could be used to process tar sand
- rock mixed with bitumen.
is composed of a mixture of bitumen, which makes up about 10-20% and about 80-85% mineral matter including sands, clays and 4-6% water.
Still, he notes that neither the specific clay-coal tar mixture nor the tar sand
in general provides a perfect spectral match for Iapetus' dark stuff.
Even if you care nothing about climate change and human health, you should still support a phase-out of Alberta's tar sand
What is essential in looking at the project is that Canada will produce tar sand
crude regardless of whether the U.S.
From a carbon emissions footprint, tar sand
mining may be the filthiest form of energy production we know of.
deposits contain the world's largest supply of oil.