In addition, if the muon and tau leptons are excited states of the electron derivable from (25), this would imply that the neutrino portion would also be specific to the muon and tau lepton excited states, thus leading to muon and tau neutrinos
. A summary of the identification of quantum particles and their associated spacetime defects as shown in this paper is provided in Table 1.
We follow the choices of [26, 37] and have the electron neutrinos described by parameters [alpha] = 3.0, <[E.sub.[nu]]> = 11.5 MeV, and [T.sub.[nu]] = 2.88 MeV, and the muon and tau neutrinos
by [alpha] = 3.0, <[E.sub.[nu]]> = 16.3 MeV, and [T.sub.[nu]] = 4.08 MeV.
Letessier-Selvon, "Establishing the GZK cutoff with ultra high energy tau neutrinos
," in Proceedings of the The international workshop on observing ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from space and earth, pp.
As is clear from the above explanation, the process is quite complicated and building and maintaining such an observatory is far from cheap (it costs $100 million to build). And studying neutrinos, given their highly elusive nature (even detectors such as the Super Kamiokande can primarily detect only electron neutrinos, one of the three neutrino forms, the other two being muon and tau neutrinos
Finally,the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) has endowed the 'Particle physics' area with a virtual workstation allowing users to visit the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, as well as a number of the photographic film and lead 'bricks' used in the OPERA experiment for detecting tau neutrinos
, and an interactive exhibit which reproduces particle collision.
In past experiments, physicists have measured the change of muon neutrinos to tau neutrinos
and electron neutrinos to muon neutrinos or tau neutrinos
Three types exist: muon neutrinos, electron neutrinos and tau neutrinos
These bizarre neutrino oscillations have now been confirmed at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory--the first experiment that is not essentially blind to muon or tau neutrinos
that can be traced back to the Sun (S&T: September 2001, page 18).
The scientists had predicted there would be such a deficit if muon neutrinos became tau neutrinos
. K2K provides the first steps toward further accelerator experiments to more precisely pin down aspects of neutrinos.--P.W.
If the number of muon neutrinos observed in the Super-Kamiokande detector is smaller than the number right after firing, it can be concluded that the particles oscillated into tau neutrinos
, which would support the hypothesis that neutrinos have mass, they said.