More specifically, we sometimes fail to realize and accept that: (a) the terms "self-esteem," "high self-esteem," and "low self-esteem" are value laden and highly contingent on one's own personal set of attitudes and beliefs (linguistic bias); and (b) to simply label someone as having high or low self-esteem does not actually explain his or her behavior (nominal fallacy and tautologous
1979) explains, "If words or conduct are reasonably understood by another to be intended as consent, they constitute apparent consent and are as effective as consent in fact." This definition of "consent" is slightly tautologous
, but it informs the discussion in the next section.
This is thought to be safe from objection because of the tautologous
nature of the truth conditions.
aspects of the comparison of carcinogenic potency in rats and mice.
This is because each argument appears to depend upon accepting the substantive position that it is meant to vindicate, such that the interpretive reasoning simply becomes a formal working out, in the language of legal analysis, of a predetermined and substantively tautologous
sin in many African cultures is defined not so much in terms of the nature of the act itself, but rather its consequences [...] Thus to say that "sin" disrupts harmony and causes suffering is tautologous
[...] An act that disrupts the harmony of the cosmos in a way harmful to the interests of man is ipso facto evil: if no harmful consequences are entailed it is therefore probably inaccurate to speak in terms of "offence" or "sin".
This was also because the inclusion of 'positive psychology' items such as positive or negative feelings, or components of well-being and distress, as part of the definition of spirituality, would be tautologous
, and, hence limiting.
Simpson and Newbold Whitfield (1937: 6) posits that examinations aimed at discovering whether a poem has been understood are "illogical and tautologous
[...] a degradation of poetry".
1397), the term "harmful use" is "tautologous
" and "suits well the alcohol industry's interest in avoiding usages that imply that their product in itself could play any causal role in harm." Room (2013, p.
Caiazza then turns to the second great reductionist project of modern times, the dream of a kind of cosmic Darwinism that would explain all the world's phenomena, including human thought and intuition, by means of natural selection, with its combination of brute, mindless processes and the tautologous
logic of the survival of the fittest.