Moreover, the increase in the size of the testes
may result in better fertility (Adaramoye et al., 2015).
Ideally, a man has to have two testes
hanging outside his body.
By two years of age, 40% of undescended testes
completely lose their germ cells [2, 5, 6].
The condition is characterized by a penis of normal length in association with unilateral or bilateral undescended testes
and persistence of mullerian structures in individuals with 46,XY karyotype.
Triorchidism, which refers to the presence of three testes
, is the most frequent presentation and the supernumerary testis is often located in the left side of the scrotum (2,3).
Numerous methods have been used by surgeons to fix the testes
and prevent re-torsion, including: 1) dartos pouch; 2) eversion of tunica vaginalis; 3) suture fixation using 1-, 2-, or 3-point fixation; 4) 4-point axial fixation; or 5) modifications of the above mentioned techniques.
Six birds in each season were weighed and euthanized by cervical dislocation for the collection of the testes
. The testes
were examined for shape, consistency, colour and size.
were thought for a long time to have been sterile environments, but researchers in Italy have found otherwise.
A small hematocele may cause no problem with fertility and may dissipate without treatment, but a large hematocele may insulate the testes
, causing interference with spermatogenesis.
"These findings can help predict and guide successful surgical sperm retrieval in testes
with TGCTs," the authors write.
Cryptorchidism or undescended testes
is the most common disorder of the male endocrine glands in children.
A follow-up ultrasound scan testes
at one month revealed an entirely normal testicle (Figures 3 and 4).