Mao & Li (2017) have reported the trifurcation of the testicular vein and the passage of bifurcated testicular artery
stump connected to the circuit using a special cannula or catheter (perfusion input)
The angiogram showed negative findings in the thoracic aorta, pulmonary vessels, abdominal aorta, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, internal iliac artery, external iliac artery, renal artery, and testicular artery
, as well as their main branches.
Spermatogenesis and spectral echo-colourdoppler traces from the main testicular artery
. BJU Int.
It also gave testicular artery
while crossing IVC and was crossed anteriorly by testicular vein (Fig.
Group Ia: sham-operated group (negative control) (n = 10): they were exposed to the procedure of ischemia/reperfusion without induction of torsion/detorsion (the left testicular artery
and vein were not occluded by clamping); then orchiectomy was performed.
The Fowler-Stephens orchidopexy was originally described as a single-stage, open inguinal approach for the high intra-abdominal testes in which the testicular artery
and veins are too short to allow the testes to reach the scrotum with a standard orchidopexy.
The testis has three fold vascular supplies, the testicular artery
, artery of the vas and cremasteric artery.
An anatomical description of an uncommon variation of the left testicular artery
is presented in this case report, highlighting its clinical implications.
The spermatic cord begins at the deep inguinal ring and descends vertically into the scrotum; the spermatic cord contains the vas deferens, testicular artery
, cremasteric artery, deferential artery, pampiniform plexuses, genitofemoral nerve, and lymphatic vessels.
In the Ivanissevich approach, testicular artery
and lymphatics are spared and the testicular veins are ligated at the inguinal ring (Raheem, 2013).