The current widely available aviation gasoline (avgas) is 100LL, a 100-octane fuel containing relatively low amounts of tetraethyl lead
, which is toxic to humans.
At the time, Swift claimed its production costs would be cheaper than conventional petroleum-based avgas with its tetraethyl lead
Lead, cadmium, manganese, aluminum, tetraethyl lead
, methylmercury and tributyltin are some examples.
The best known and most widely used metallic fuel additive (MFA) is tetraethyl lead
(TEL), which has been used worldwide as an anti-knock additive in gasoline.
Boyd had discovered that adding tetraethyl lead
to petroleum fuel raised its ignition temperature, allowing higher compression in gasoline engines, which dramatically increased performance.
In addition, car exhausts release lead oxides, resulting from the combustion of tetraethyl lead
, into the atmosphere, and this is one of the most widespread routes to leading contamination of marine organisms with metals and the transit of these contaminants via sea fishing to humans and animals.
The race fuel includes tetraethyl lead
, and has an AKI of 110.
Many industries, such as battery manufacturing, ammunition, tetraethyl lead
manufacturing, ceramic and glass industries printing, and the painting and dying industry, represent significant sources of lead release into the environment [4-6].
For example, subsequent to the EPA regulation requiring all newly built autos sold in the United States to be equipped with catalytic converters, the agency issued regulation banning the sale of leaded gasoline because, unfortunately, the tetraethyl lead
disabled the catalytic converter (Newell and Rogers 2003).
Cadmium is released as a by-product of zinc (and occasionally lead) refining; lead is emitted during its mining and smelting activities, from automobile exhausts (by combustion of petroleum fuels treated with tetraethyl lead
antiknock) and from old lead paints; mercury is emitted by the degassing of the earth's crust.
Finally, had Seager referenced Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner, or Nancy Langston, she might have seen DES, tetraethyl lead
and polyvinyl chloride as appropriate parallels to Carson's attack on DDT.
In the 1970s, gasoline combustion was an important source of air pollution by lead, as tetraethyl lead
was added to gasoline at concentrations of approximately 0.4 g [L.sup.-1] (Paoliello and Chasin, 2001; Sharma and Dubey, 2005).