Molecular identification of adult and juvenile Linyphiid and Theridiid
spiders in Alpine Glacier Foreland communities.
The nephilid eunuch phenomenon is not homologous to the voluntary emasculation by theridiid
spiders Echinotheridion and Tidarren (Agnarsson 2006; Kuntner et al.
spiders were collected only from vegetation sweeps during the sampling sessions of the study (Table 1), however a male black widow spider (Latrodectus hesperus) was removed from a pitfall trap within the upland site prior to the beginning of the spring sampling period.
Arachnids of the order Amblypygi and specifically family Theridiid
ae were observed on or suspended within close proximity to every type of acidic substrate throughout every part of the cave.
The most abundant salticid, theridiid
and thomisid species all had peak ballooning in early summer.
The broad disparity in theridiid
webs is possibly the result of their great flexibility in microhabitat use, their ability to adjust web design to different physical spaces, prey types, and prey availability (Turnbull 1964; Eberhard 1990a; Agnarsson & Coddington 2007; Jorger & Eberhard 2006; Eberhard et al.
Web forms and phylogeny of theridiid
spiders (Araneae: Theridiidae): chaos from order.
Species that appear to be exclusively myrmecophagic include a theridiid
Dipoena and a thomisid Aphantochilus (Umeda et al.
The mother's assistance is indispensable for the emergence of juveniles from the cocoon in lycosids (Fujii 1978; Higashi & Rovner 1975), in the subsocial theridiid
Anelosimus cf studiosus (Viera et al.
Anelosimus studiosus Hentz 1850 is a relatively small (about 8 mm long) theridiid
spider which ranges from Argentina to New England (Agnarsson 2006; Agnarsson et al.
Robinson & Lubin 1979) and some theridiid
species (Nielsen 1931; Szlep 1965).
Jackson & Brassington 1987; Kirchner & Opderbeck 1990; Japyassu & Macagnan 2004), and recent studies have shown that several genera within the family have comb-hairs on the fourth tarsi that show considerable similarity to those of certain theridiid
taxa (Belisana: Huber 2005a; Spermophora: Huber 2005b; Carapoia: Huber 2005c; Metagonia: Huber et al.