Alcolac International of Baltimore provided thiodiglycol
, a chemical used to make mustard gas, and the Al Haddad Brothers Enterprises, a trading company based in Nashville, Tennessee, that was owned by an Iraqi-born man, was accused of shipping various chemicals to Iraq.
During the search of the lab, (the Russian military) also found thiodiglycol
and triethanolamine, which can be used for the production of sulfur and nitrogen mustard, as well as hexamine," Kirillov said.
"The substances discovered, such as thiodiglycol
and diethanolamine, are necessary for the production of sulfur and nitrogen mustard gas.
(96) Cornelius Van Anraat delivered of tons of thiodiglycol
(TDG) to the Saddam Hussein regime which was used to create mustard gas.
Seven different liquids having different polarity were used as probes for surface free energy calculations: Water, Diiodomethane, Thiodiglycol
, Ethylene glycol, 1-Oktanol, Trichloromethane, and Dimethylformamide (see Table 3).
Saddam Hussein first showed an interest in chemical weapons in 1980, when his state-owned Enterprise for Pesticide Production began buying huge quantities of thiodiglycol
in Europe and the United States.
Despite ongoing Iraqi support for Abu Nidal and other terrorist groups during the 1980s, the Reagan administration removed Iraq from the State Department's list of state sponsors of terrorism to provide the regime with thiodiglycol
, a key component in the manufacture of mustard gas, and other chemical precursors for their weapons program.
After acid hydrolysis, the solution was dried using rotary evaporation and resuspended in 0.17 M sodium citrate buffer (pH 2.2) containing 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) and 0.4% thiodiglycol
. Samples (0.9 mL) were loaded into a cation exchange column (Resin: PC 6A amino acid analysis resin pierce) and eluted by pH and ionic strength (short column pH 5.28, long column pH 3.25, and additional pH 4.25).
In the late 1980s, Alcolac allegedly sold the chemical thiodiglycol
(TDG) to Saddam Hussein's Iraqi regime, which used the it to create mustard gas that the Iraqis deployed on Kurdish enclaves.
Defendant, Alcolac, began selling thiodiglycol
("TDG") under the trade name Kromfax.
Lundin, editor, Verification of Dual-Use Chemicals Under the Chemical Weapons Convention." The Case of Thiodiglycol
, Oxford University Press, 1991.
Kindred in 1947 reported that single intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg of sulfur mustard dissolved in thiodiglycol
in young male rats caused degenerative damage to the spleen, thymus, and bone marrow.