Concurrent with these written assignments, students developed facility in composition, thoroughbass
accompaniment, and improvisation (categories that may not have been so distinct) through practical exercises known as partimenti.
Hopkins defines rhetoric as "the common and teachable element in literature, which grammar is to speech, what thoroughbass
is to music, what theatrical experience gives to playwrights" (Corres., 2: 800).
present four essays based on lectures they gave at the Fourth International Orpheus Academy for Music Theory in 2006 on "Music Theory: Thoroughbass
in Practice, Theory, and Improvisation." Essays address the interaction between music theory, music history, performance practice, aesthetics, and related sciences, particularly how the development of tonal harmonic theory accompanied the practice of thoroughbass
; the Neapolitan tradition of partimento; the relation between the realization of partimenti and contrapuntal thinking.
BASSO continuo and the style period to which it belongs were conjoined early in this century when Hugo Riemann coined the term General-baBzeitalter, the Thoroughbass
Era.(1) Basso continuo has indeed become integral to our conception of Baroque style, and with few exceptions pervades modern-day performances of Baroque music.
Moreover, was Bach not following the conventions of thoroughbass
harmony, together with the contrapuntal thinking that that involves, without a necessary consciousness of modern functional tonality?
Bach's publications after Bach had moved to Hamburg, Hering appears to have also provided instruction in thoroughbass
. Otherwise, little else is known about Hering or the extent of the collection of music he amassed for himself rather than on commission.
Others address the genres of music theory during the period proposed by Carl Dahlhaus, little-known examples of music theory sources by historians of early modern science and medicine, and the Rule of the Octave and the history of the thoroughbass
. One article is in French.
Turk tells us (in 1789) and Starke repeats (in 1819) the following directions for achieving good Vortrag: (1) a previously developed facility in playing and note-reading, security in rhythm, a good knowledge of thoroughbass
ana of the piece itself that one is playing, and then especially; (2) clarity in execution; (3) expression of the prevailing character; (4) proper application of ornaments and other such devices; (5) a proper feeling for every passion and emotion expressed in the music.(22) I believe that Rachmaninoff's Mozart passes nos.1 and 2, but then veers off radically in nos-3-5.
In one, the melody is notated in Satie's most exuberant calligraphy with a different C clef every half bar.(66) The other is a composition draft in which the accompaniment is indicated with thoroughbass
figures.(67) Satie was turning his newly acquired academic skills to practical account.
Federhofer as Georg Muffat: an essay on thoroughbass
(American Institute of Musicology, 1961) [page numbers for subsequent quotes are taken from this edition].
The topics treated here include the central position of the triad, French thoroughbass
practice and the 'regle de l'octave', the development of harmonic counterpoint, and the inversional derivation of triads; all were traditional practices that formed important features of Rameau's harmonic theory.
Jensen, with a wordy but otherwise unassuming title, "An Early Circle of Fifths: Nikolai Diieiskii's Grammatika musikiiskago peniia (A Grammar of Musical Song)." It turned out that Diletskii's circle was not just an early one, but the earliest one on record, preceding the venerable Johann David Heinichen's "musicalischer Circul" (in his thoroughbass
treatise of 1711), long the official First Circle, by 32 years.