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Related to thylakoid: Photosystem, granum


A saclike membrane in the chloroplasts of plant cells that is often arranged in stacks called grana and that is the site of the light reactions of photosynthesis.

[Greek thūlakos, sack + -oid.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(Biology) a small membranous sac within a chloroplast of a plant
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(ˈθaɪ ləˌkɔɪd)

a structure in the chloroplast of photosynthesizing cells, usu. one of an interconnected stack, having a pigmented membrane that is the site of photosynthesis.
[< German Thylakoid (1961) < Greek thȳlakoeidḗs resembling a bag =thylak(os) sack + -oēidēs -oid]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of light quality on the composition and function of thylakoid membranes in Atriplex triangularis.
This leads to alterations in the state of thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, which cause changes in the characteristics of the signals of fluorescence and consequently reduction in plant growth and production (Taiz et al., 2017; Sa et al., 2018; Lima et al., 2018).
A thylakoid lumenal 29 kDa chloroplastic gene in qBFR4 is enzyme coded as peroxidase and is involved in peroxidase activity.
(2006), the adapted state to the dark is a situation in which the sheet is photochemically inactive, i.e., where all the electron transport processes in the thylakoid membrane are deactivated, resulting in a minimal trans-thylakoid gradient and very low concentrations of NADPH and ATP, thus allowing the achievement of maximum efficiency values for the photochemical processes of photosynthesis.
Salt stress limits these processes in photosynthesis, such as the limitation in thylakoid electron transport by enhancing membrane viscosity and restricting the plastoquinone diffusion (Li et al.
The Arabidopsis thylakoid transporter PHT4;1 influences phosphate availability for ATP synthesis and plant growth.
(2014) pointed out in their review that UV-B radiation can affect photosynthesis in various aspects such as damage of photosystem II, loss in integrity of the thylakoid membranes and reduced Rubisco activity and content besides stomatal conductance.
ROS can damage DNA, proteins such as the Dl protein in photosystem II (PS[PI]) and its repair mechanism and the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate decarboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), and thylakoid membranes, leading to photosynthetic dysfunction (Lesser, 1996, 1997,2006; Weis, 2008; Roth, 2014).
HMs often directly impinge on the structure of thylakoid membranes at chloroplast site and also on photosynthetic proteins, which thereby perniciously affect the efficiency of photochemistry properties in dark-adapted leaves and photosystem II [18].
Two types of solar cells with two photosensitizers: thylakoid membrane preparations and anthocyanin-enriched raspberry extracts have been studied.
Thylakoid membrane responses to moderately high leaf temperature in Pima Cotton.