Key words: fracture, tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus
, avian, blue-fronted Amazon parrot, Amazona aestiva, macaw, Ara ararauna x Ara macao
With the same argument, the relationship between the sum of the tibiotarsus
and the tarsometatarsus with respect to the femur is also used to determine how well a cursorial bird is adapted to perform long distance movements (Garland Jr.
Having been recognized as a family since 1901, the storks form a well-defined group highlighted by several characteristics both behavioural and morphologic: long legs with the tibiotarsus
not covered by feathers; relatively short feet and with small interdigital membranes; 12 primary remiges; 12 secondary remiges; bare parts of the head; oil gland for the feathers, pectoral muscles associated to flying high altitudes; strong beak; feathering predominantly black and white; the young have two layers of fuzz; air sacs under the skin of the neck; loss of the filoplume; similar social behaviours; uro-hydrosis (behaviour of thermal regulation through defecating on the feet) (HANCOCK; KUSHLAN; KAHL, 1992).
Antennal segments 1 to 3, head, body, legs to tibiotarsus
, collophore scales only on posterior face, and ventral face of furcula.
A 2 cm incision was made over the lateral aspect of the left intertarsal joint, and the soft-tissues were bluntly dissected from the distal tibiotarsus
and proximal tarsometatarsus.
The foot and tibiotarsus
with attached muscle were embedded in a polyurethane potting compound (Fastcast, Goldenwest MFG, Oak Ridge, CA).
Finally, an isolated tibiotarsus
exhibits bird-like features and a partial sacrum first provisionally regarded as pterosaurian actually belongs to a large ground bird probably related to Gargantuavis (Buffetaut et al., 2006; and work currently in progress).
Forty experimental arrays with femur and tibiotarsus
bones of adult vs.
Many studies are done on chicken with special aspects of leg skeletal development, like knee joint development [24, 25] or development of a certain bone, for example tibiotarsus
or tarsometatarsus [9, 28], with only a now-and-then mentioning of other parts of the skeletal system.
11); pregonopodial legs lacking femoral processes; tibiotarsus
of gonopod divided into one short basal and two longer, slender appendages (Fig.
Dr Fitzgerald said the bone was from the lower half of one of the leg bones, "a tibiotarsus
, which corresponds to the shin and ankle in humans".
Response of broilers to feeding low--calcium and phosphorus diets plus phytase under different environmental conditions: Body weight and tibiotarsus