The following chemicals tested in ToxCast[TM] were used as signpost chemicals: troglitazone, tributyltin chemicals, nicotine, haloperidol and chlorpromazine, tolazamide
, amitraz, dexamethasone, nicotinic acid (niacin), and chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
The first generation of sulfonylureas are tolbutamide, tolazamide
, and actohexamide and the second generation of sulfonylureas are glyburide, glipizide, gliclazide, glimepiride, and others.
Modifications of antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (adapted from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines) Class Drug Dosing recommendation stages 3 and 4 CKD or kidney transplant First-generation Acetohexamide, Avoid sulfonylureas tolazamide
, tolbutamide Chlorpropamide Avoid when GFR < 50 mL/min/ 1.
The second-generation agents, glimepiride (Amaryl[R]), glipizide (Glucotrol[R] and Glucotrol XL[R]), and glyburide (Diabeta[R], Micronase[R], and Glynase[R]), have shorter half-lives and shorter onset of action than the first generation sulfonylureas such as chlorpropamide, (Diabinese[R]), tolazamide
(Tolinase[R]), and tolbutamide (Orinase[R]).
xx Actos, Amaryl, Avandamet, Avandia, chlorpropamide, Diabeta, Diabinese, Fortamet, Glipizide, Glipizide ER, Glipizide XL,Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Glucovance, glyburide, glyburide micronized, glyburide-metformin, Glynase, Glyset, Humalog, Humalog Mix 75/25, Humulin 50/50, Humulin 70/30, Humulin L, Humulin N, Humulin R, Humulin U, Iletin II Lente Pork, Iletin II NPH Pork, Iletin II Regular Pork, Iletin NPH, Lantus, Metaglip, metformin, metformin ER, Micronase, Novolin 70/30, Novolin L, Novolin N, Novolin R, Novolog, Novolog Mix 70/30, Prandin, Precose, Riomet, Starlix, tolazamide
, tolbutamide, Tolinase, Velosulin Human BR ED = Erectile dysfunction; ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification; HCTZ = hydrochlorothiazide.