There has been less of a focus on young girls' transgressions from normative gender discourses in early childhood than on adolescent girls, with discussions often centering on tomboyism (Blaise, 2005; Carr, 1998; Halberstam, 1998; Paechter & Clark, 2007; Reay, 2001; Renold, 2005, 2006; Robinson & Davies, 2007).
From this study we have found that perceptions of tomboyism change across generations and shift according to socio-cultural background and geographical location.
Other aspects of the participants' family situation, such as parents' employment and marital status, as well as birth order and the presence of a male sibling, were found to be unrelated to tomboyism
Comparable notions have been studied to some extent, however, in tomboyism
and ladette behavior, metropolitan lesbian bois, Indonesian tomboys (transsexuals), the Shakespearean and Kabuki boy actress, selected historical boy-men, among other itches to conventional developmental-gendered schemas (Janssen, 2007a).
Very often it is read as a sign of independence and self-motivation, and tomboyism
may even be encouraged to the extent that it remains comfortably linked to a stable sense of a girl identity" (6).
There is, however, more to her migration, for Adele's move from Russia to Israel also coincided with, or, more likely, facilitated her coming out as a lesbian and a radical shift away from a stereotypical Russian hyper-femininity to gender-bending tomboyism
I got lectures on tomboyism
from my sister and my mother.
In her study of tomboyism
in American culture, psychologist Janet Hyde explains that "tomboyism
Is the notion of tomboyism
an outmoded concept, and the tomboy narrative a genre locked into an earlier world of more restrictive social patterns?
22 For discussion of nineteenth-century attitudes toward tomboyism
see Sharon O'Brien, "Tomboyism
and Adolescent Conflict: Three Nineteenth-Century Case Studies," in Woman's Being; Woman's Place: Female, Identity and Vocation in American History, ed.
During the 1920s, they marshaled advertising to combat tomboyism
and direct parents and their daughters back to dolls.
poses an implicit challenge to the heteronormative family as well: not only does she seem disinterested in the prospect of motherhood, but also she develops intuitively a surrogate family in place of her biological one.