One OSHIR1 (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase) is involved in As and Cd uptake (Hasan et al., 2017) by interacting with OsTIP4;1 a tonoplast
intrinsic protein in the plasma membrane.
2015), the tonoplast
intrinsic protein TIP41 gene of Pennisetum glaucum (L.) showed the highest stability in another study (SAHA & BLUMWALD, 2014), and the glucosidase II a-subunit gene of Populus euphratica was most stable under drought stress (WANG et al.
These projections in the tannin cells were visible in de-astringent fruits and are associated to the mechanic effect in the tonoplast
created by the polymerization of the tannins during the process of astringency reduction (Salvador et al., 2007).
is SUT1, SUT2, SUT3, SUT4, SUT5, SUT6 have been proposed that encode protein located in the plasma membrane and tonoplast
in sorghum genome (Braun and Slewinski, 2009).
vonWiren, "AtIREG2 encodes a tonoplast
transport protein involved in iron-dependent Ni detoxification in Arabidopsis thaliana roots," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Biological processes such as water uptake, nitrogen mobilization, tonoplast
membrane flexibility, and increase in plasma and synthesis of sugar contribute to cellular expansion .
reported that treatment of garlic cloves with 5% (v/v) acetic acid resulted in significant tonoplast
damage and a concomitant increase in the concentration of thiosulfinates .
Generally, K plays important functions in plant systems by activation of more than 80 enzymes involved in different metabolic processes including photosynthesis, protein synthesis, respiration etc., charge balancing across the membranes of different cell organelles, particularly plasma membrane and tonoplast
, and as osmoticum in stomatal regulation by maintenance of guard cells turgidity (Mengel, 2007).
Reversibility of [H.sup.+]-AT Pase and [H.sup.+]-pyrophosphatase in tonoplast
vesicles from maize coleoptiles and seeds.
It takes into account cell wall, vacuole, and tonoplast
. In Figure 5, the components [R.sub.1], [R.sub.2], and [R.sub.3] represent the cell wall resistance, cytoplasm resistance, and vacuole resistance.
Yu et al., "Nitrate reutilization mechanisms in the tonoplast
of two Brassica napus genotypes with different nitrogen use efficiency," Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, vol.
Shibata, "Substitution of a single amino acid residue in the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter alters the transport profiles of tonoplast
aquaporin homologs," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta--Biomembranes, vol.