In order to reduce the reflection loss without the additional processing steps required for coating the backside of the grating facets with a reflecting metal, a total internal reflection
(TIR) V-shaped facet was used at each grating tooth (see Figure 1(d)).
3M has designed the light guide to form the outer structure of the lamp and use total internal reflection
technology to distribute light around the globe.
In the work  peculiarities of interference of reactive components of harmonic electric and magnetic fields are studied on the example of three well-known problems: 1) light passing through the transparent plane-parallel plate at an angle of incidence exceeding the critical angle of total internal reflection
, 2) the formation of a refracted wave in the region of total internal reflection
from a semi-infinite medium and 3) radiationless transport of energy between excited and unexcited atoms.
The luminaire provides direct illumination from multi-die LED packages with secondary optics that utilize multiple total internal reflection
lenses, which shape and smooth the light creating dramatic effects on textured surfaces.
Other instrumentation available to Salk researchers includes, but is not limited to, live-cell confocal and fluorescence microscopy solutions from Carl Zeiss Microimaging, high-speed fluorescence and two-photon microscopy from Olympus America, total internal reflection
microscopy (TIRFM) from Nikon Instruments and automation and cell identification technology from Metasystems International.
The NEVALO system includes over 60 LED Light Modules (LLMs) options, ranging from 300-to-3400 lumens, in form factors for popular lighting applications; optics in total internal reflection
and reflector styles; drivers with constant current output, dimming-control capabilities and temperature monitoring; and a new ribbon-based, four-wire configuration wiring system that is physically keyed and color coded for polarity, accurate power connections and ease of manufacturing.
The cell^TIRF illuminator offers four motorized channels for simultaneous image capture; intuitive, user-friendly software control of total internal reflection
fluorescence (TIRF) parameters; and instant setting and confirmation of the precise TIRF angle.
When the molecules re-emit the light, it bounces through the plate by total internal reflection
until it hits the solar cell.
The mirror surfaces are usually metallized to ensure that high angle multimode propagated light is reflected and not passed through a total internal reflection
(TIR) mirror (without metallization).
The TechSpec family of light pipe homogenizing rods for OEM illumination needs use total internal reflection
to turn a non-uniform light source into uniform illumination and deliver it to the target site.
Evanescent waves are formed when sinusoidal waves are internally reflected off an interface at an angle greater than the critical angle so that total internal reflection
Most Raman experiments use a lens to focus a laser beam onto a sample (exceptions being near-field Raman spectroscopy, (14) some fiber optic probe designs, (15) and total internal reflection