Lee (1956-1959) and Tan Siew Sin (1959-1974), were wealthy towkay
(business and community leaders) whose tin, rubber, and trading interests relied upon global markets.
Among these words are kongsi (association or partnership), towkay
(a wealthy Chinese businessman, boss), tapau (take away food) and kiasu (fear of losing out to other people) (Hashim and Leitner 2011).
It may be interesting to note that there is at Georgetown in Malaysia a clock tower, the Victoria Memorial Clock Tower, erected in commemoration of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee by the rich Chinese Towkay
(master), Cheah Chin Gok.
Robert, a schoolmate of mine, who has been a remisier for more than 40 years for the same brokerage says: "Every client is your towkay
50) Ken Wat [or Law Kian Huat as he is known today] was a Teochiu; possibly the leading towkay
of Kuching, described on his death in 1885 as having been, with his partner Sim Ah Nio, the richest merchant in Sarawak and a friend of Charles Brooke.
The End of Empire is peopled with colonial reformists, ardent Malay nationalists, Chinese leftwing radicals and communists, rich towkay
philanthropists, farmers, workers, and shopkeepers of all races, as well as, of course, ethnic leaders out to secure the best deals for their communities.
My father was worried that Getty's family would object to our marriage as we are a poor family and Getty's father is a pemancha and a towkay
The peranakan Chinese towkay
who had hired the company publicly intervened, removed the artist from the stage, and prevented the conflict from escalating.
From the Chinese point of view, there is not so much a "contest" with Malay officialdom -- strictly speaking, it is a no-contest when it comes to a decision between the name of a ruler and the name of a towkay
-- as a sense of anxiety.
In her analysis of VOC expansion in Java's northeast coast, she attempts to show how the VOC officials relied on the existing power elites in the region, namely the Mataram rulers, the coastal regents, and the big Chinese towkay
, and at the same rime, provided spaces and opportunities for various Javanese elites, as well as the Chinese business elites, to consolidate their power vis-a-vis their local rivals and vis-a-vis other segments of state and society in their corresponding regions.
The old kongsi mining areas of Bau and Marup, centers of opposition to the White Rajahs and towkay
dominance, were the setting for some of the most active Chinese anti-colonial groups in the immediate post-war years.
Here the towkay
(Chinese businessman) could entertain and dine in the 'million-dollar' private apartments of expensive restaurants while 'the humblest member of the working class may spend his very hard-earned fifty cents or more unostentatiously at the gaming booths, the open-air cinema or the laneside hawker'.